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The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
[1] There is increasing evidence that the amount of solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface is not stable over the years but undergoes significant decadal variations. Here I review the evidence for these changes, their magnitude, their possible causes, their representation in climate models, and their potential implications for climate change. The(More)
691 Earth’s climate is determined by the flows of energy into and out of the planet and to and from Earth’s surface. Geographical distributions of these energy flows at the surface are particularly important as they drive ocean circulations, fuel the evaporation of water from Earth’s surface and govern the planetary hydrological cycle. Changes to the(More)
Current and future volume changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets depend on modern mass balance changes and on the ice-dynamic response to the environmental forcing on time scales as far back as the last glacial period. Here we focus on model predictions for the 20th and 21st centuries using 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet/ice shelf models driven(More)
Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities,(More)
Anatomical evidence and conditioning experiments have suggested that magnetoreceptors innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve are located in the upper beak of homing pigeons. Following these findings it has been proposed that the trigeminally-mediated magnetorececeptors are able to detect magnetic field intensity, which might be useful(More)
Anatomical evidence and conditioning experiments have recently suggested that magnetoreceptors are located in the upper beak of homing pigeons, where they are innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. These findings have raised the issue of whether the trigeminally mediated magnetoreception is involved in the navigational mechanisms of(More)
[1] We examine multidecadal changes in surface downward shortwave (SW) radiation flux, total cloud cover, SW cloud effect, and related parameters over Europe during 1965– 2004 using monthly gridded data from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), synoptic cloud reports, and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). One key issue is(More)
Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of avian brains have been based are in error, and as a result that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains. Recognizing this problem, a number of(More)
The electrophilic nature of chalcones (1,3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-ones) and many other α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds is crucial for their biological activity, which is often based on thiol-mediated regulation processes. To better predict their biological activity a simple screening assay for the assessment of the second-order rate constants (k(2)) in(More)