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Angioedema is characterized by localized swelling of subcutaneous tissues or mucosa of the upper respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. Laryngeal involvement may threaten airway patency and can be fatal if not addressed promptly. There are several distinct subtypes of angioedema, caused by different pathological processes involving a range of(More)
Components of mitogen-activated signal transduction pathways have been shown to be involved in flagellum biogenesis and maintenance. A mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue, designated LmxMPK9 from Leishmania mexicana, has been recently identified in a homology screen and its mRNA found to be present in all life stages. Three different splice-addition(More)
During its life cycle, the parasitic protozoon Leishmania mexicana differentiates from a flagellated form, the promastigote, to an amastigote form carrying a rudimentary flagellum. Besides biochemical changes, this process involves a change in overall cell morphology including flagellar shortening. A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase homologue(More)
Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin (LmjAQP1) adventitiously facilitates the uptake of antimonite [Sb(III)], an active form of Pentostam® or Glucantime®, which are the first line of defence against all forms of leishmaniasis. The present paper shows that LmjAQP1 activity is modulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase, LmjMPK2. Leishmania parasites(More)
During its life cycle, the protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani is exposed to contrasting environments inside insect vector and vertebrate host, to which the parasite must adapt for extra- and intracellular survival. Combining null mutant analysis with phosphorylation site-specific mutagenesis and functional complementation we genetically tested the(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases are well-known mediators of signal transduction of higher eukaryotes regulating important processes like proliferation, differentiation, stress response and apoptosis. In Leishmania, the typical three-tiered module of MAP kinase signal transduction pathways is present. However, typical activators like cell surface receptors(More)
A striking difference of the life stages of the protozoan parasite Leishmania is a long flagellum in the insect stage promastigotes and a rudimentary organelle in the mammalian amastigotes. LmxMKK, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase from Leishmania mexicana, is required for growth of a full-length flagellum. We identified LmxMPK3, a MAP kinase(More)
Considering the high incidence of galactofuranose (Gal(f)) in pathogens and its absence from higher eukaryotes, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this unusual monosaccharide appear as attractive drug targets. However, although the importance of Gal(f) in bacterial survival or pathogenesis is established, its role in eukaryotic pathogens is still(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania parasites undergo profound morphological and biochemical changes while passing through their life cycle. Protein kinases have been shown to be involved in the differentiation from the extracellular flagellated promastigotes to the intracellular "non-flagellated" amastigotes and vice versa. Moreover, these enzymes are likely involved in(More)
Members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade are important for the establishment of a Leishmania mexicana infection and are involved in flagellar length control, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study reports the cloning and characterization of LmxPK4, a MAP kinase kinase homologue of L. mexicana(More)