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We have developed a matter wave interferometer based on the diffraction of atoms from effective absorption gratings of light. In a setup with cold rubidium atoms in an atomic fountain the interferometer has been used to carry out tests of the equivalence principle on an atomic basis. The gravitational acceleration of the two isotopes 85Rb and 87Rb was(More)
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-the macroscopic ground-state accumulation of particles with integer spin (bosons) at low temperature and high density-has been observed in several physical systems, including cold atomic gases and solid-state quasiparticles. However, the most omnipresent Bose gas, blackbody radiation (radiation in thermal equilibrium with(More)
We demonstrate an atom laser using all-optical techniques. A Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms is created by direct evaporative cooling in a quasistatic dipole trap realized with a single, tightly focused CO2-laser beam. An applied magnetic field gradient allows the formation of the condensate in a field-insensitive m(F)=0 spin projection only,(More)
Classical ratchet potentials, which alternate a driving potential with periodic random dissipative motion, can account for the operation of biological motors. We demonstrate the operation of a quantum ratchet, which differs from classical ratchets in that dissipative processes are absent within the observation time of the system (Hamiltonian regime). An(More)
A proof-of-principle experiment simulating effects predicted by relativistic wave equations with ultracold atoms in a bichromatic optical lattice that allows for a tailoring of the dispersion relation is reported. We observe the analog of Klein tunneling, the penetration of relativistic particles through a potential barrier without the exponential damping(More)
We report on an experimental study of quantum transport of atoms in variable periodic optical potentials. The band structure of both ratchet-type asymmetric and symmetric lattice potentials is explored. The variable atom potential is realized by superimposing a conventional standing wave potential of lambda/2 spatial periodicity with a fourth-order(More)
We have developed a novel source for the generation of powerful phase-coherent light pulses. Our setup uses an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) inside an external high-finesse resonator. By applying a short rf pulse to the AOM, we dump the cavity and extract a large part of the stored and enhanced power within a short optical pulse and with a controllable(More)
Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic wave theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena would be reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the(More)