Learn More
A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was(More)
BACKGROUND Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is(More)
Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic problem and a potential public health risk. Improved diagnostics like the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) test with ESAT6 and/or CFP10 could contribute to the control program. We assessed IFN-gamma responses in zebu (Ethiopian Arsi breed) and Holstein cattle kept indoors or in a pasture to tuberculin purified protein(More)
Accurate detection and removal of infected cattle, using immunodiagnostic tests such as the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, are the basis of control strategies for bovine tuberculosis (TB). According to the Office des Internationale Epizooties recommendation, the cutoff point for positivity of the CIDT test, calculated as the difference(More)
A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers(More)
There is a requirement for vaccines or vaccination strategies that confer better protection against TB than the current live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for use in cattle. Boosting with recombinant viral vectors expressing mycobacterial proteins, such as Ag85A, has shown a degree of promise as a strategy for(More)
A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong(More)
Although CD1d and NKT cells have been proposed to have highly conserved functions in mammals, data on functions of CD1d and NKT cells in species other than humans and rodents are lacking. Upon stimulation with the CD1d-presented synthetic antigen α-galactosylceramide, human and rodent type I invariant NKT cells release large amounts of cytokines. The two(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a potent trigger for inflammatory immune responses. Without tight regulation their activation could lead to pathology, so it is imperative to extend our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern TLR expression and function. One family of immunoregulatory proteins which can provide a balancing effect on TLR(More)
The gene encoding a 19-kDa antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was expressed as a recombinant protein in the rapid-growing species Mycobacterium smegmatis. The recombinant antigen was expressed at a level approximately ninefold higher than in M. tuberculosis and, like the native antigen, was found in the pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation(More)