Martin V. Smith

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To date, there are no reports of growth of significant numbers of axons into or across a lesion of the mammalian spinal cord. However, recent studies showing that CNS axons will grow into PNS environments indicate that comparable growth into spinal cord lesions could be achieved if ischemic necrosis could be prevented and the lesion site repopulated by(More)
OBJECTIVE An approach to transnasal transsphenoidal debulking of pituitary tumors using endoscopic guidance is presented. METHODS Technical details of this approach using an endoscope inserted through one nostril and operating instruments inserted through a submucosal tunnel created via the other nostril are discussed. RESULTS Ten patients who had(More)
Markedly dilated cervical epidural veins and right upper extremity weakness developed in a 43-year-old man 4 months after contralateral craniectomy for head trauma. After cranioplasty, his symptoms improved markedly and the size of the veins returned to normal. These findings suggest that enlarged cervical epidural veins may occur without an underlying(More)
The authors report 3 patients, 2 children and 1 adult, each of whom presented with an unusual myxoid lesion reminiscent of pilocytic astrocytoma but with other features of myxopapillary ependymoma. The magnetic resonance imaging findings in all cases showed a diffusely contrast-enhancing suprasellar mass focally extending into the third ventricle.(More)
Prolactin (PRL) Levels are frequently elevated in patients with non-PRL-secreting adenomas or other intrasellar and parasellar diseases ("pseudoprolactinomas"). This phenomenon is believed to result from a loss of dopaminergic inhibition on pituitary lactotrophs and is known as the "stalk-section effect." Using magnetic resonance imaging scans and a(More)
1. The upper cervical spinal cord contains over one-third of the cells of the spinothalamic tract (STT). This study investigated response properties of contralaterally projecting STT neurons in C2 of the cat by the use of single-unit, microelectrode recordings. Standard antidromic stimulation and collision techniques were used to identify STT units(More)
Lesions in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal cord often cause an unusual array of sensory changes and atrophic weakness, primarily involving the ipsilateral forelimb. Furthermore, small midline myelotomies performed at C1 often lead to widespread analgesia covering most of the body in patients with chronic pain. These observations challenge(More)
JEL classification: D72 C93 M37 Keywords: Voter turnout Negative campaigning Comparative advertising Fundraising Field experiment a b s t r a c t Why do candidates risk alienating voters by engaging in negative campaigning? One answer may lie in the large empirical literature indicating that negative messages are more effective than positive messages in(More)