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The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to(More)
Scopolamine, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, is capable of inducing transient memory impairment in normal subjects. Against the background of the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the present study was designed to investigate the effects of low oral doses of scopolamine on a range of cognitive functions known or hypothesized to be(More)
During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) in August 2001 a total of 14 measurement flights were performed with the DLR Falcon jet aircraft from Heraklion, Crete. One objective of this campaign was to investigate the role of long-range transport of pollutants into the Mediterranean area. An analysis of 5-day back trajec-tories indicates that(More)
Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spec-trometry), and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) have been performed during the Mediter-ranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS August 2001). We have identified ten biomass burning plumes from strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios.(More)
Administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine has been proposed as a pharmacological model for Alzheimer's disease. We have attempted to characterize the cognitive deficits produced by the administration of scopolamine (0.2 and 0.4 mg intra muscularly) to normal volunteers. We have also demonstrated reversal of these deficits by the cholinesterase(More)
1. Two studies were undertaken to develop a model of experimentally induced anxiety in normal volunteers based on cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor agonism/antagonism. 2. In Study 1 rapid intravenous injections of the CCK receptor subtype B (CCKB) agonist pentagastrin (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 micrograms kg-1) were found to produce dose-related increases in(More)
Previous studies have shown that cholinergic blockade in normal subjects induces impairment of vigilance as well as memory deficits. In the present investigation we have examined the validity of this pharmacological model of dementia by administering a battery of cognitive tasks to patients with mild and moderate senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and to(More)
The transient impairments of memory produced by the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine have been adopted as a pharmacological model of Alzheimer-type dementia in normal volunteers. In this study we examined the effects of chronic (72 h) transdermal administration of scopolamine on memory, attention, sedation and visual function. The transdermal patches(More)
The subject of this investigation experiences vivid after-images which persist for tens of seconds following stimulation by light insufficiently intense to produce after-images in normal subjects. The after-images occur at all points in the visual field, and have spatial structure closely similar to that of the stimuli which elicit them, the only distortion(More)
A double-blind, in-clinic, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-period crossover study was undertaken to investigate the potential sedative and cognitive effects of diphenhydramine 50 mg, p.o. and cyclobenzaprine 5 mg, p.o. in elderly volunteers. Subjects were given 10 doses of each treatment over a 4-day period according to a t.i.d. schedule. A battery of(More)