Martin Steinbakk

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To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment.(More)
The calcium binding L1 protein was found to inhibit growth of blood culture isolates of Candida spp and cerebrospinal fluid isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 4-128 mg/l, and concentrations 2-4 times the MIC were fungicidal. Blood culture isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and(More)
BACKGROUND Early onset bacterial sepsis is a feared complication of the newborn. A large proportion of infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for suspected sepsis receive treatment with potent systemic antibiotics while a diagnostic workup is in progress. The gold standard for detecting bacterial sepsis is blood culture. However, as(More)
Beta-lactam resistance in Haemophilus influenzae due to ftsI mutations causing altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is increasing worldwide. Low-level resistant isolates with the N526K substitution (group II low-rPBP3) predominate in most geographical regions, while high-level resistant isolates with the additional S385T substitution (group III(More)
Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first(More)
The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was established to harmonise clinical antimicrobial breakpoints and to define breakpoints for new agents in Europe. Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) external quality assessment (EQA) exercises from 2009 to 2012, from the United Kingdom(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) causes mild to severe infections in humans. GAS genotype emm1 is the leading cause of invasive disease worldwide. In the Nordic countries emm28 has been the dominant type since the 1980s. Recently, a resurgence of genotype emm1 was reported from Sweden. Here we present the epidemiology of invasive GAS(More)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreaks cause increased use of macrolides and tetracyclines. We aimed to investigate whether drug use data, in addition to laboratory data, could improve understanding of the spread of M. pneumoniae epidemics. Number of users of Mycoplasma antibiotics (erythromycin, doxycycline, clarithromycin) per week and county of residence in an(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the ability of four commercially available media for screening extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) to detect and identify ESBL-producing Salmonella and Shigella in fecal samples. A total of 71 Salmonella- and 21 Shigella- isolates producing ESBLA and/or AmpC, were received at Norwegian Institute of Public Health(More)
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