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The success or failure of antimicrobial therapy in bacterial and fungal infections is predicted ideally by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), in which microorganisms are divided into treatable and non-treatable categories on the basis of MIC breakpoints. In Europe, the categorization was traditionally a clinical one and it was made irrespective of(More)
To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment.(More)
The calcium binding L1 protein was found to inhibit growth of blood culture isolates of Candida spp and cerebrospinal fluid isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 4-128 mg/l, and concentrations 2-4 times the MIC were fungicidal. Blood culture isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and(More)
EUCAST expert rules have been developed to assist clinical microbiologists and describe actions to be taken in response to specific antimicrobial susceptibility test results. They include recommendations on reporting, such as inferring susceptibility to other agents from results with one, suppression of results that may be inappropriate, and editing of(More)
BACKGROUND Early onset bacterial sepsis is a feared complication of the newborn. A large proportion of infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for suspected sepsis receive treatment with potent systemic antibiotics while a diagnostic workup is in progress. The gold standard for detecting bacterial sepsis is blood culture. However, as(More)
Beta-lactam resistance in Haemophilus influenzae due to ftsI mutations causing altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is increasing worldwide. Low-level resistant isolates with the N526K substitution (group II low-rPBP3) predominate in most geographical regions, while high-level resistant isolates with the additional S385T substitution (group III(More)
Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis(More)
Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first(More)
The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was established to harmonise clinical antimicrobial breakpoints and to define breakpoints for new agents in Europe. Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) external quality assessment (EQA) exercises from 2009 to 2012, from the United Kingdom(More)