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Autonomic reflexes enable the cardiovascular system to respond to gravitational displacement of blood during changes in posture. Spontaneous oscillations present in the cerebral and systemic circulation of healthy subjects have demonstrated a regulatory role. This study assessed the dynamic responses of the cerebral and systemic circulation upon standing up(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania parasites cause a diverse spectrum of diseases in humans ranging from spontaneously healing skin lesions (e.g., L. major) to life-threatening visceral diseases (e.g., L. infantum). The high conservation in gene content and genome organization between Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum contrasts their distinct pathophysiologies,(More)
Oligomeric forms of Aβ peptides are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and disrupt membrane integrity, leading to cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) elevation. Proposed mechanisms by which Aβ mediates its effects include lipid destabilization, activation of native membrane channels, and aggregation of Aβ into Ca(2+)-permeable pores. We distinguished between(More)
Crop coefficient curves provide simple, reproducible means to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) from weather-based reference ET values. The dual crop coefficient ͑K c ͒ method of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States (FAO) Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 (FAO-56) is intended to improve daily simulation of crop ET by(More)
The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) has been widely studied. One of the most significant early studies was by Grubb et al (1974 Stroke 5 630-9), who conducted hypercapnia studies in primates with positron emission tomography (PET) and empirically found CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.38). The exponent used here has since been known as the(More)
OBJECTIVE Subjects with severe hemiplegic cerebral palsy have increased ipsilateral corticospinal projections from their noninfarcted cortex. We investigated whether their severe impairment might, in part, be caused by activity-dependent, competitive displacement of surviving contralateral corticospinal projections from the affected cortex by more active(More)
The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders consist of a rapidly expanding heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes characterised by primary and secondary defects in the biosynthesis degradation, or transport of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Disease onset can occur any time from infancy onwards. Clinical presentation depends on the(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The major risk factors for ICH include chronic arterial hypertension and oral anticoagulation. After the initial hemorrhage, hematoma expansion and perihematoma edema result in secondary brain damage and worsened outcome. A rapid onset of focal neurological(More)
Human tumours often contain DNA sequences not found in normal tissues which are able to transform cultured NIH 3T3 cells. In some tumours the gene responsible for this transformation belongs to the cellular ras gene family. A specific type of mutation is responsible for converting the cellular proto-oncogene into a ras oncogene capable of inducing(More)