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Autonomic reflexes enable the cardiovascular system to respond to gravitational displacement of blood during changes in posture. Spontaneous oscillations present in the cerebral and systemic circulation of healthy subjects have demonstrated a regulatory role. This study assessed the dynamic responses of the cerebral and systemic circulation upon standing up(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania parasites cause a diverse spectrum of diseases in humans ranging from spontaneously healing skin lesions (e.g., L. major) to life-threatening visceral diseases (e.g., L. infantum). The high conservation in gene content and genome organization between Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum contrasts their distinct pathophysiologies,(More)
Oligomeric forms of Aβ peptides are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and disrupt membrane integrity, leading to cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) elevation. Proposed mechanisms by which Aβ mediates its effects include lipid destabilization, activation of native membrane channels, and aggregation of Aβ into Ca(2+)-permeable pores. We distinguished between(More)
The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders consist of a rapidly expanding heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes characterised by primary and secondary defects in the biosynthesis degradation, or transport of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Disease onset can occur any time from infancy onwards. Clinical presentation depends on the(More)
Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) is an endocannabinoid-mediated short-term plasticity mechanism that couples postsynaptic Ca2+ rises to decreased presynaptic GABA release. Whether the gain of this retrograde synaptic mechanism is subject to long-term modulation by glutamatergic excitatory inputs is not known. Here, we demonstrate that(More)
The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) has been widely studied. One of the most significant early studies was by Grubb et al (1974 Stroke 5 630-9), who conducted hypercapnia studies in primates with positron emission tomography (PET) and empirically found CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.38). The exponent used here has since been known as the(More)
Trypanosomatids are unicellular protists that include the human pathogens Leishmania spp. (leishmaniasis), Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness), and Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). Analysis of their recently completed genomes confirmed the presence of non-long-terminal repeat retrotransposons, also called retroposons. Using the 79-bp signature(More)
OBJECTIVE Subjects with severe hemiplegic cerebral palsy have increased ipsilateral corticospinal projections from their noninfarcted cortex. We investigated whether their severe impairment might, in part, be caused by activity-dependent, competitive displacement of surviving contralateral corticospinal projections from the affected cortex by more active(More)
The near-IR cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) signal has potential as a clinical marker of changes in mitochondrial oxygen utilization. We examine the CCO signal response to reduced oxygen delivery in the healthy human brain. We induced a reduction in arterial oxygen saturation from baseline levels to 80% in eight healthy adult humans, while minimizing changes in(More)