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Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These(More)
The viral three-prime repair exonuclease (v-trex) gene of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the first baculovirus gene to be described with significant homology to a 3' exonuclease. v-trex is an early gene that is expressed by AgMNPV from 3 h post-infection. In the present study, the AgMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the(More)
Using an in vitro peptide stimulation strategy, two chimpanzees that were acutely infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) produced peripheral blood CTL responses to several HBV-encoded epitopes that are known to be recognized by class I-restricted CTL in acutely infected humans. One animal responded to three HBV peptides that, in humans, are restricted by(More)
Culture supernatant harvested from Daudi cells, a lymphoplastoid cell line, after 58 days of infection with the H77 strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV), was inoculated into a chimpanzee. HCV RNA, as detected by RT-PCR, first appeared in the serum and liver 5 and 6 weeks, respectively, after inoculation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected on(More)
Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus(More)
Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature resistance and prevent tissue damage. The accumulation of anti-freeze proteins that improve cold hardiness occurs in diverse species including plants, arthropods, fish, and amphibians. We(More)
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