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MCL1 is essential for the survival of stem and progenitor cells of multiple lineages, and is unique among pro-survival BCL2 family members in that it is rapidly turned over through the action of ubiquitin ligases. B- and mantle-cell lymphomas, chronic myeloid leukaemia, and multiple myeloma, however, express abnormally high levels of MCL1, contributing to(More)
In meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and II. Disjunction of maternal from paternal centromeres during meiosis I depends on the attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules emanating from the same pole. In budding yeast, monopolar attachment requires recruitment(More)
Cohesion established between sister chromatids during pre-meiotic DNA replication mediates two rounds of chromosome segregation. The first division is preceded by an extended prophase wherein homologous chromosomes undergo recombination. The persistence of cohesion during prophase is essential for recombination and both meiotic divisions. Here we show that(More)
Receptor occupancy (RO) assays are designed to quantify the binding of therapeutics to their targets on the cell surface and are frequently used to generate pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker data in nonclinical and clinical studies of biopharmaceuticals. When combined with the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, RO data can establish PKPD relationships, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Receptor occupancy (RO) assays measure drug target engagement, and are used as pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers. RO assays are commonly performed by flow cytometry and often require multiplexing for assessment of multiple PD biomarkers when specimen volumes are limited. We present multiplexed RO assays for an IGF1R-EGFR bispecific antibody (Bs-Ab)(More)
BACKGROUND Receptor occupancy (RO) assays provide a means to measure the direct interaction of therapeutics with their cell surface targets. Free receptor assays quantify cell-surface receptors not bound by a therapeutic while total receptor assays quantify the amount of target on the cell surface. METHODS We developed both a flow cytometry-based free RO(More)
Over the last few years, numerous ligand binding assay technologies that utilize real-time measurement have been introduced; however, an assemblage and evaluation of these technologies has not previously been published. Herein, we describe six emerging real-time measurement technologies: Maverick™, MX96 SPR™, NanoDLSay™, AMMP®/ViBE®, SoPrano™, and two(More)
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