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Several bacterial species have been implicated in the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but CRC-associated changes of fecal microbiota and their potential for cancer screening remain to be explored. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples to identify taxonomic markers that distinguished CRC patients from tumor-free controls in a study(More)
PURPOSE Currently, fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the major drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. Several investigators, including ourselves, have demonstrated a link between abnormalities in 5-FU clearance (Cl) and the risk of developing more or less 5-FU-related toxicities. Age and sex are among the host factors that have been implicated in the(More)
Cell culture studies have implicated the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. To better understand this function in vivo, we have created PHD3(-/-) mice and analyzed the neuronal phenotype. Reduced apoptosis in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons cultured from PHD3(-/-) mice is(More)
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. The clinical importance of DPD has recently been demonstrated with the identification of severe and/or lethal 5-FU-related toxicity in patients with suspected or proven DPD deficiency revealed in lymphocytes. We conducted a prospective study on 185 cancer(More)
Wasting is a major complication of advanced head and neck cancer and the aim of this study was to compare nasogastric tube feeding (NG) and percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy (PFG) in these patients. The goal of these two methods of nutritional support was to improve or maintain the initial nutritional status during treatment. A total of 90 patients, all(More)
PURPOSE Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in tumor invasion and dissemination. EMT occurs predominantly at the tumor edge where it is induced by cytokines, the extracellular matrix environment, or hypoxia. In the tumor cell, it is further mediated by several transcription factors and microRNAs. The aim of this study was to(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of thymidylate synthase (TS; main cellular target of fluorouracil [FU]) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; rate-limiting enzyme of FU catabolism) in tumoral biopsies with respect to FU responsiveness. PATIENTS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted on 62 head and neck cancer(More)
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We measured DPD activity in lymphocytes from 57 consecutive head and neck cancer patients while simultaneously monitoring 5-FU pharmacokinetics during 5-day, continuous infusion (1000 mg/m2/day) 5-FU therapy (82 cycles in total). The mean value for(More)
The combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is considered to be the standard treatment in induction chemotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Capecitabine (Xeloda) is an oral fluoropyrimidine that is preferentially activated at the tumoral level, exploiting the higher thymidine phosphorylase activity in tumoral(More)
This phase II study determined response rate of patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer treated with pemetrexed disodium, a new multitargeted antifolate that inhibits thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase. 35 patients with local or metastatic relapse of squamous cell(More)