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OBJECTIVE It has been proposed that physiologic levels of estrogens stimulate immune responses whereas androgens suppress inflammatory reactions. Thus, prevalence of synovial androgens relative to estrogens would be favorable in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated synovial fluid (SF) concentrations of several estrogens and androgens and conversion(More)
In synovial cells of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), conversion products of major anti-inflammatory androgens are as yet unknown but may be proinflammatory. Therefore, therapy with androgens in RA could be a problem. This study was carried out in order to compare conversion products of androgens in RA and OA synoviocytes. In(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17beta-estradiol was thought to play a dual pro- and antiinflammatory role depending on its concentration or probably conversion to downstream mitogenic 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone or naturally occurring antiestrogens such as 2-hydroxyestrone. We compared renal(More)
The tissue availability of active glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) depends on their rate of synthesis from cholesterol, downstream metabolism, excretion and interconversion. The latter is mediated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11βHSDs). In this review, we summarize the features of the two isoenzymes, 11βHSD1 and 11βHSD2, and current(More)
BACKGROUND The proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of the sympathetic nervous system in early and late inflammation is an unresolved paradox. A drastic loss of sympathetic nerve fibres in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has previously been demonstrated. The presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in RA and(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT Extracellular recordings have elucidated spatial neural representations without identifying underlying microcircuits. We labeled neurons juxtacellularly in medial entorhinal cortex of freely moving rats with a friction-based, pipette-stabilization system. In a linear maze novel to the animals, spatial firing of superficial layer neurons was(More)
This paper details a free surface method using an explicit time stepping scheme for use in z-coordinate ocean models. One key property that makes the method especially suitable for climate simulations is its very stable numerical time stepping scheme, which allows for the use of a long density time step, as commonly employed with coarse-resolution rigid-lid(More)
Coinductive definitions, such as that of an infinite stream, may often be described by elegant logic programs, but ones for which SLD-refutation is of no value as SLD-derivations fall into infinite loops. Such definitions give rise to questions of lazy corecursive derivations and parallelism, as execution of such logic programs can have both recursive and(More)