Martin Schiavenato

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The human patient simulator or high-fidelity mannequin has become synonymous with the word simulation in nursing education. Founded on a historical context and on an evaluation of the current application of simulation in nursing education, this article challenges that assumption as limited and restrictive. A definition of simulation and a broader(More)
Pain assessment conventionally has been viewed hierarchically with self-report as its "gold-standard." Recent attempts to improve pain management have focused on the importance of assessment, for example, the initiative to include pain as the "fifth vital sign." We question the focus in the conceptualization of pain assessment upon a "vital sign," not in(More)
The primal face of pain (PFP) is postulated to be a common and universal facial expression to pain, hardwired and present at birth. We evaluated its presence by applying a computer-based methodology consisting of "point-pair" comparisons captured from video to measure facial movement in the pain expression by way of change across two images: one image(More)
PURPOSE This paper aims to explore the role of facial expression in pediatric pain assessment. A comparison of tools employing facial expression methodology is presented. The concept of the primal face of pain (PFP) is introduced. CONCLUSION The PFP offers an explanation to the utility and deficiency of facial pain scales and facial expression in pain(More)
Pain assessment is of high priority in the clinical setting. Facial Pain Scales (FPSs) are pain assessment tools generally used with school-aged children. The implicit theoretical bases for the success of FPSs have seldom been explored. Explanations why and how FPSs work (or do not work) have not been addressed. We support the existence of a universal pain(More)
BACKGROUND Infants in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to routine procedures that often cause distress and carry a negative burden or load on the infant's neurodevelopment. AIM A ratio level index is introduced to estimate procedural load so as to begin to develop a system to monitor the intensity of distress associated with common NICU(More)
Many pain assessment tools for preschool and school-aged children are based on facial expressions of pain. Despite broad use, their metrics are not rooted in the anatomic display of the facial pain expression. We aim to describe quantitatively the patterns of initiation and maintenance of the infant pain expression across an expressive cycle. We evaluated(More)
Pain assessment of the child and adolescent with sickle cell disease is complex and challenging. We present a paradigm of pain assessment during a vaso-occlusive crisis in children and adolescents based on the Pain Assessment as a Social Transaction model. Using this model, the assessment of pain severity in sickle cell disease is uniquely highlighted as(More)