Martin Schiavenato

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Pain assessment conventionally has been viewed hierarchically with self-report as its "gold-standard." Recent attempts to improve pain management have focused on the importance of assessment, for example, the initiative to include pain as the "fifth vital sign." We question the focus in the conceptualization of pain assessment upon a "vital sign," not in(More)
The human patient simulator or high-fidelity mannequin has become synonymous with the word simulation in nursing education. Founded on a historical context and on an evaluation of the current application of simulation in nursing education, this article challenges that assumption as limited and restrictive. A definition of simulation and a broader(More)
The primal face of pain (PFP) is postulated to be a common and universal facial expression to pain, hardwired and present at birth. We evaluated its presence by applying a computer-based methodology consisting of "point-pair" comparisons captured from video to measure facial movement in the pain expression by way of change across two images: one image(More)
PURPOSE This paper aims to explore the role of facial expression in pediatric pain assessment. A comparison of tools employing facial expression methodology is presented. The concept of the primal face of pain (PFP) is introduced. CONCLUSION The PFP offers an explanation to the utility and deficiency of facial pain scales and facial expression in pain(More)
Pain assessment is of high priority in the clinical setting. Facial Pain Scales (FPSs) are pain assessment tools generally used with school-aged children. The implicit theoretical bases for the success of FPSs have seldom been explored. Explanations why and how FPSs work (or do not work) have not been addressed. We support the existence of a universal pain(More)
Many pain assessment tools for preschool and school-aged children are based on facial expressions of pain. Despite broad use, their metrics are not rooted in the anatomic display of the facial pain expression. We aim to describe quantitatively the patterns of initiation and maintenance of the infant pain expression across an expressive cycle. We evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND Facial expression is widely used to judge pain in neonates. However, little is known about the relationship between intensity of the painful stimulus and the nature of the expression in term neonates. OBJECTIVES To describe differences in the movement of key facial areas between two groups of term neonates experiencing painful stimuli of(More)
BACKGROUND Managing diversity dynamics in academic or clinical settings for men in nursing has unique challenges resulting from their minority status within the profession. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to share challenges and lessons learned identified by male scholars in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program and(More)