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Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Consequently, phthalates are found in human residential and occupational environments in high concentrations, both in air and in dust. Phthalates are also ubiquitous food and environmental contaminants. An increasing number of(More)
Products with antimicrobial effect based on silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in Asia, North America and Europe. This study presents an analysis of risk to freshwater ecosystems from silver released from these nanoparticles incorporated into textiles and plastics. The analysis is presented in four stages; (i) silver mass flow analysis and(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants added to plastics, polyurethane foam, electronics, textiles, and other products. These products release PBDEs into the indoor and outdoor environment, thus causing human exposure through food and dust. This study models PBDE dose distributions from ingestion of food for Irish(More)
BACKGROUND Most empirical estimates of human elimination kinetics for persistent chemicals reflect apparent elimination half-lives that represent the aggregated effect of intrinsic elimination, ongoing exposure, and changes in body weight. However, estimates of intrinsic elimination at background levels are required for risk assessments for the general(More)
BACKGROUND People who live in dwellings treated with indoor residual spraying (IRS) of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] for disease-vector control in the tropics and indigenous populations in the Arctic who consume marine mammals experience high nonoccupational exposure to DDT. Although the use of DDT in IRS is rising, the resulting(More)
The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an(More)
Physicochemical properties (vapor pressure, aqueous solubility, octanol solubility, Henry's law constant, and octanol-air and octanol-water partition coefficients) and their temperature dependencies are required for fate modeling of environmental pollutants. To be internally consistent, measured values for these properties often must be adjusted. The goal(More)
The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a recently published, and is in our considered opinion inaccurate(More)
Snow and ice have been implemented in a global multimedia box model to investigate the influence of these media on the environmental fate and long-range transport (LRT) of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs). Investigated compounds include HCB, PCB28, PCB180, PBDE47, PBDE209, alpha-HCH, and dacthal. In low latitudes, snow acts as a transfer medium taking(More)