Martin Schüler

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Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) facilitate an alternative, end-independent pathway of translation initiation. A particular family of dicistroviral IRESs can assemble elongation-competent 80S ribosomal complexes in the absence of canonical initiation factors and initiator transfer RNA. We present here a cryo-EM reconstruction of a dicistroviral IRES(More)
Elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes tRNA translocation on the ribosome. Here a cryo-EM reconstruction of the 70S*EF-G ribosomal complex at 7.3 A resolution and the crystal structure of EF-G-2*GTP, an EF-G homolog, at 2.2 A resolution are presented. EF-G-2*GTP is structurally distinct from previous EF-G structures, and in the context of the cryo-EM(More)
With the introduction of the Euro, a single European money market has emerged. Further wholesale financial markets are considered to be highly integrated within the European Union. However, integration in retail financial markets is less advanced. For measuring financial market integration this distinction between wholesale and retail markets becomes(More)
The system of banking supervision in Europe is undergoing substantial reforms. According to Stigler’s capture theory regulation often follows the preferences of producers. Therefore, the interests of the financial industry might be a major driving force for the ongoing supervisory reform debate. This paper identifies possible interests of the regulated(More)
This paper attempts to assess the Europe-wide systemic risk potential in banking. We employ a bivariate GARCH model to estimate conditional correlations between European bank stock indices. These correlations are used as an indication for the interdependencies amongst the banking business and hence for the systemic risk potential. We employ several tests to(More)
Lending and borrowing interest rates are often slow to adjust to changing capital market conditions. This paper argues that national differences of the pass-through speed in the EU can be regarded as a retail-oriented indicator of financial integration. Based on an ECB database the speed of interest rate adjustments for different markets and countries is(More)
BACKGROUND It is well established that vicinal fluorines (RCHF-CHFR) prefer to adopt a gauche rather than an anti conformation when placed along aliphatic chains. This has been particularly recognised for 1,2-difluoroethane and extends to 2,3-difluorobutane and longer alkyl chains. It follows in these latter cases that if erythro and threo vicinal(More)