Martin Scaal

Learn More
The study of the morphogenetic cell movements underlying myotome formation in the chick embryo has led to the emergence of highly controversial models. Here we report a real-time cell lineage analysis of myotome development using electroporation of a GFP reporter in newly formed chick somites. Confocal analysis of cell movements demonstrates that myotome(More)
Somites are segments of paraxial mesoderm that give rise to a multitude of tissues in the vertebrate embryo. Many decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of data on the complex molecular interactions leading to the formation of various somitic derivatives. In this review, we focus on the crucial role of the somites in building the body wall and(More)
Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) is known to be involved in the detachment of myogenic precursor cells from the lateral dermomyotomes and their subsequent migration into the newly formed limb buds. As yet, however, nothing has been known about the role of the persistent expression of SF/HGF in the limb bud mesenchyme during later stages of(More)
During somite maturation, the ventral half of the epithelial somite disintegrates into the mesenchymal sclerotome, whereas the dorsal half forms a transitory epithelial sheet, the dermomyotome, lying in between the sclerotome and the surface ectoderm. The dermomyotome is the source of most of the mesodermal tissues in the body, giving rise to cell types as(More)
The avian sclerotome forms by epitheliomesenchymal transition of the ventral half-somite. Sclerotome development is characterized by a craniocaudal polarization, resegmentation, and axial identity. Its formation is controlled by signals from the notochord, the neural tube, the lateral plate mesoderm, and the myotome. These signals and crosstalk between(More)
In ovo electroporation is a well-established method of gene transfer into neural and mesenchymal tissue in chick embryos. Electroporation of somites, however, has been hampered by low efficiency due to technical difficulties. Here, we present a powerful technique to electroporate avian somites and subpopulations of somitic cells at high efficiency in ovo.(More)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been shown to be important regulatory proteins for tissue determination and differentiation. We cloned the chicken homologue of the gene of the murine Twist-related bHLH protein Dermo-1, which we named cDermo-1, and analyzed its sequence and embryonic expression. Our sequence data suggest a decisive(More)
Although limb development has been a subject of intense research over the last decades, development of the girdles has been poorly investigated. Particularly, a detailed analysis of pelvic girdle development including functional data is not available to date. Here, we describe the early steps of the formation of mesenchymal and cartilaginous anlagen of the(More)
Somites are a common feature of the phylotypic stage of embryos of all higher chordates. In amniote species like mouse and chick, somite development has been the subject of intense research over many decades, giving insight into the morphological and molecular processes leading to somite compartmentalization and subsequent differentiation. In anamniotes,(More)
During somite maturation, the ventral half of the epithelial somite disintegrates into the mesenchymal sclerotome, whereas the dorsal half forms a transitory epithelial sheet, the dermomyotome, lying in between the sclerotome and the surface ectoderm. The dermomyotome is the source of the majority of the mesodermal tissues in the body, giving rise to cell(More)