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Cells of the mononuclear phagocytotic system (MPS) are often found near to or within ischemic tissue and can potentially aggravate cellular damage. Hence, visualization of those cells would allow demarcation of putatively affected from intact tissue. Experimental MRI studies have shown that ultrasmall particles of dextran-coated iron oxide (USPIO) are(More)
Dynamic measurements of local changes in relative cerebral blood volume (CBV(rel)) during a pharmacological stimulation paradigm were performed in mice. Using magnetite nanoparticles as an intravascular contrast agent, high-resolution CBV(rel) maps were obtained. Intravenous administration of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline prompted increases in local(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a commonly used animal model that in several respects mimics human multiple sclerosis (MS), and can be used to design or validate new strategies for treatment of this disease. In the present study, different MRI techniques (macrophage tracking based on labeling cells in vivo by ultrasmall particles of iron(More)
The long blood circulating time and the progressive macrophage uptake in inflammatory tissues of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles are 2 properties of major importance for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathologic tissue characterization. This article reviews the proof of principle of applications such as imaging of carotid(More)
Stroke is a prevalent and devastating disorder, and no treatment is currently available to restore lost neuronal function after stroke. One unique therapy that improves recovery after stroke is neutralization of the neurite inhibitory protein Nogo-A. Here, we show, in a clinically relevant model, improved functional recovery and brain reorganization in the(More)
A prominent hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology is cerebral amyloidosis. However, it is not clear how extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) deposition and amyloid formation compromise brain function and lead to dementia. It has been argued that extracellular amyloid deposition is neurotoxic and/or that soluble A beta oligomers impair synaptic(More)
Assessment of tumour vascularity may characterize malignancy as well as predict responsiveness to anti-angiogenic therapy. Non-invasive measurement of tumour perfusion and blood vessel permeability assessed as the transfer constant, K(trans), can be provided by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Using the orthotopic murine(More)
d-Serine has been proposed as an endogenous modulator at the co-agonist glycine-binding site of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. There is still some debate as to whether this site is saturated in vivo, but it seems likely that this depends on regional differences in local glycine or d-serine concentrations. In order to identify areas where the(More)
More than 50 % of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from cognitive deficits. Attention is one of the most frequently affected cognitive functions. It has been shown that MS patients suffer from a specific but not necessarily from a generalized decrease in performance and that different severity grades of impaired attentional processing can be(More)
Noninvasive conventional imaging methods are established technologies in modern drug discovery and development providing valuable morphological, physiological, and metabolic information to characterize disease phenotypes, to evaluate the efficacy of therapy and to identify and develop potential biomarkers for clinical drug evaluation. The development of(More)