Martin R Goodier

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Historically, human NK cells have been identified as CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(±) lymphocytes. More recently it has been established that CD57 expression defines functionally discrete sub-populations of NK cells. On T cells, CD57 expression has been regarded as a marker of terminal differentiation and (perhaps wrongly) of anergy and senescence. Similarly, CD57(More)
NK cells recognize and kill tumor cells and normal cells, and these play an important role in immune defense in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity. NK killing is regulated by positive or negative signals derived from the interaction of surface receptors with ligands on the target cells. However, the mechanisms controlling the proliferation and(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells differentiate and mature during the human life course; human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a known driver of this process. We have explored human NK cell phenotypic and functional maturation in a rural African (Gambian) population with a high prevalence of HCMV. The effect of age on the frequency, absolute number, phenotype,(More)
BACKGROUND Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is elevated in the plasma of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 and is thought to contribute to chronic immune activation of myeloid cells and T-cells. Natural killer (NK) cells can also be stimulated by LPS in vitro. OBJECTIVES To measure plasma LPS levels in individuals with HIV-1 infection, with or without(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the effector phase of vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses, secreting cytokines and releasing cytotoxic granules. The proportion of responding NK cells varies between individuals and by vaccine, suggesting that functionally discrete subsets of NK cells with different activation requirements may be involved. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 infection is characterized by increase in inhibitory receptors and loss of activating receptors on natural killer (NK) cells, resulting in loss of cell activity. Exceptionally, for an inhibitory receptor, the proportion of NK cells bearing CD94-NKG2A decreases during HIV-1 infection. It is not understood whether HIV-1 itself or other(More)
Type 1 diabetes is caused by adaptive immune responses, but innate immunity is important because monocytes infiltrate islets. Activated monocytes express cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, promoting prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) secretion, whereas COX-1 expression is constitutive. We aimed to define monocyte COX expression in type 1 diabetes basally and after(More)
NK cell function is regulated by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory receptors. We developed an assay to study the effect of co-crosslinking NK cell receptors in pair-wise combinations without the need to purify NK cells. Monoclonal antibodies recognising inhibitory and activating receptors were coated to flat bottomed tissue culture(More)
We have previously shown that human CD3- CD56+ and CD3+ CD56+ cells from some individuals mount vigorous proliferative responses to lipopolysaccharide. Such responses have been blocked by the presence of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 immunoglobulin fusion protein in the cultures, implicating a role for B7-mediated costimulation. Here we confirm this(More)
NK cells contribute to postvaccination immune responses after activation by IL-2 from Ag-specific memory T cells or by cross-linking of the low-affinity IgG receptor, CD16, by Ag-Ab immune complexes. Sensitivity of NK cells to these signals from the adaptive immune system is heterogeneous and influenced by their stage of differentiation. CD56(dim)CD57(+) NK(More)