Six years ago, we compared the climate sensitivity of 19 atmospheric general circulation models and found a roughly threefold variation among the models; most of this variation was attributed to differences in the models' depictions of cloud feedback. In an update of this comparison, current models showed considerably smaller differences in net cloud… (More)
The central compensation mechanisms for vertigo resulting from vestibular lesions are described together with the scientific basis for head exercises in vestibular rehabilitation. The indications and contra-indications for head exercises are discussed and the Cawthorne-Cooksey regime of exercises illustrated.
We compare seasonal changes in cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere from 18 atmospheric general circulation models, and observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). To enhance the CRF signal and suppress interannual variability, we consider only zonal mean quantities for which the extreme months (January and July),… (More)
Observation of optokinetic nystagmus may be of invaluable help in the diagnosis of lesions of the vestibular pathways at all levels from the labyrinth to the cerebral cortex and facilities for its observation are an essential item of modern otological equipment. The majority of the disorders that had been discussed can be recognized on clinical examination… (More)
Observations of Hallpike (1967) suggested that the neural mechanism responsible for positional nystagmus of central type, the direction-changing type of Nylén, was dependent upon derangement of compensatory eye reflexes subserved by neck proprioceptors and/or otolith organs in the presence of damage to the medial vestibular nuclei. Clinical studies together… (More)
Abnormalities of optokinetic nystagmus are described in a patient with pathologically proven bilateral infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territories. There were no other central nervous system lesions. These abnormalities of eye movement are interpreted as indicating an inhibitory effect of the frontal eye fields upon the occipital lobes.