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Intracellular recordings of cortical neurons in awake cat and monkey show a depolarized state, sustained firing, and intense subthreshold synaptic activity. It is not known what conductance dynamics underlie such activity and how neurons process information in such highly stochastic states. Here, we combine intracellular recordings in awake and naturally(More)
We review here the development of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models of cerebral cortex and thalamic neurons for network simulations. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons were analyzed from several preparations, and we selected the four most prominent electrophysiological classes of neurons. These four classes are "fast spiking",(More)
The optimal patterns of synaptic conductances for spike generation in central neurons is a subject of considerable interest. Ideally such conductance time courses should be extracted from membrane potential (V(m)) activity, but this is difficult because the nonlinear contribution of conductances to the V(m) renders their estimation from the membrane(More)
During protein biosynthesis, processing of the N terminus of many proteins may occur through acetylation and deacetylation. The enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase is likely involved in deacetylation of nascent peptide chains or of bioactive peptides. The related enzyme, acylase, hydrolyzes the acetyl amino acid product of the acylpeptide hydrolase reaction to(More)
Acylpeptide hydrolase may be involved in N-terminal deacetylation of nascent polypeptide chains and of bioactive peptides. The activity of this enzyme from human erythrocytes is sensitive to anions such as chloride, nitrate, and fluoride. Furthermore, blocked amino acids act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. Acetyl leucine chloromethyl ketone has(More)
In awake animals, the activity of the cerebral cortex is highly complex, with neurons firing irregularly with apparent Poisson statistics. One way to characterize this complexity is to take advantage of the high interconnectivity of cerebral cortex and use intracellular recordings of cortical neurons, which contain information about the activity of(More)
Cortical neurons behave similarly to stochastic processes, as a consequence of their irregularity and dense connectivity. Their firing pattern is close to a Poisson process, and their membrane potential (V(m)) is analogous to colored noise. One way to characterize this activity is to identify V(m) to a multidimensional stochastic process. We review here(More)
Cortical neurons are subject to sustained and irregular synaptic activity which causes important fluctuations of the membrane potential (V(m)). We review here different methods to characterize this activity and its impact on spike generation. The simplified, fluctuating point-conductance model of synaptic activity provides the starting point of a variety of(More)
Large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) in many cell types once the iNOS gene is transcriptionally activated. In primary mouse peritoneal macrophages elicited by thioglycolate broth, expression of iNOS follows treatment with IFN-gamma and is synergistically increased by the addition of bacterial LPS.(More)
Incubation of pure bacterial D-amino acid transaminase with D-serine or erythro-beta-hydroxy-DL-aspartic acid, which are relatively poor substrates, leads to generation of a new absorbance band at 493 nm that is probably the quinonoid intermediate. The 420-nm absorbance band (due to the pyridoxal phosphate coenzyme) decreases, and the 338-nm absorbance band(More)