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Intracellular recordings of cortical neurons in awake cat and monkey show a depolarized state, sustained firing, and intense subthreshold synaptic activity. It is not known what conductance dynamics underlie such activity and how neurons process information in such highly stochastic states. Here, we combine intracellular recordings in awake and naturally(More)
We review here the development of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models of cerebral cortex and thalamic neurons for network simulations. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons were analyzed from several preparations, and we selected the four most prominent electrophysiological classes of neurons. These four classes are "fast spiking",(More)
The optimal patterns of synaptic conductances for spike generation in central neurons is a subject of considerable interest. Ideally such conductance time courses should be extracted from membrane potential (V(m)) activity, but this is difficult because the nonlinear contribution of conductances to the V(m) renders their estimation from the membrane(More)
Cortical neurons are subject to sustained and irregular synaptic activity which causes important fluctuations of the membrane potential (V(m)). We review here different methods to characterize this activity and its impact on spike generation. The simplified, fluctuating point-conductance model of synaptic activity provides the starting point of a variety of(More)
In awake animals, the activity of the cerebral cortex is highly complex, with neurons firing irregularly with apparent Poisson statistics. One way to characterize this complexity is to take advantage of the high interconnectivity of cerebral cortex and use intracellular recordings of cortical neurons, which contain information about the activity of(More)
In awake animals, the cerebral cortex displays an "activated" state, with distinct characteristics compared to other states like slow-wave sleep or anesthesia. These characteristics include a sustained depolarized membrane potential (V(m)) and irregular firing activity. In the present paper, we evaluate our understanding of cortical activated states from a(More)
Cortical neurons behave similarly to stochastic processes, as a consequence of their irregularity and dense connectivity. Their firing pattern is close to a Poisson process, and their membrane potential (V(m)) is analogous to colored noise. One way to characterize this activity is to identify V(m) to a multidimensional stochastic process. We review here(More)
A wide diversity of models have been proposed to account for the spiking response of central neurons, from the integrate-and-fire (IF) model and its quadratic and exponential variants, to multiple-variable models such as the Izhikevich (IZ) model and the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models. Such models can capture different aspects of the spiking(More)
We study anomalous gauge-boson couplings induced by a locally SU(2) × U(1) invariant effective Lagrangian containing ten operators of dimension six built from the boson fields of the Standard Model (SM) before spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). After SSB some operators lead to new three-and four-gauge-boson interactions, some contribute to the diagonal(More)
In awake animals, the activity of the cerebral cortex is highly complex, with neurons firing irregularly with apparent Poisson statistics. One way to characterize this complexity is to take advantage of the high inter-connectivity of cerebral cortex and use intracellular recordings of cortical neurons, which contain information about the activity of(More)