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Intracellular recordings of cortical neurons in awake cat and monkey show a depolarized state, sustained firing, and intense subthreshold synaptic activity. It is not known what conductance dynamics underlie such activity and how neurons process information in such highly stochastic states. Here, we combine intracellular recordings in awake and naturally(More)
Cortical neurons are subject to sustained and irregular synaptic activity which causes important fluctuations of the membrane potential (V(m)). We review here different methods to characterize this activity and its impact on spike generation. The simplified, fluctuating point-conductance model of synaptic activity provides the starting point of a variety of(More)
The optimal patterns of synaptic conductances for spike generation in central neurons is a subject of considerable interest. Ideally such conductance time courses should be extracted from membrane potential (V(m)) activity, but this is difficult because the nonlinear contribution of conductances to the V(m) renders their estimation from the membrane(More)
We review here the development of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models of cerebral cortex and thalamic neurons for network simulations. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons were analyzed from several preparations, and we selected the four most prominent electrophysiological classes of neurons. These four classes are "fast spiking",(More)
In awake animals, the cerebral cortex displays an "activated" state, with distinct characteristics compared to other states like slow-wave sleep or anesthesia. These characteristics include a sustained depolarized membrane potential (V(m)) and irregular firing activity. In the present paper, we evaluate our understanding of cortical activated states from a(More)
A wide diversity of models have been proposed to account for the spiking response of central neurons, from the integrate-and-fire (IF) model and its quadratic and exponential variants, to multiple-variable models such as the Izhikevich (IZ) model and the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models. Such models can capture different aspects of the spiking(More)
Cortical neurons behave similarly to stochastic processes, as a consequence of their irregularity and dense connectivity. Their firing pattern is close to a Poisson process, and their membrane potential (V(m)) is analogous to colored noise. One way to characterize this activity is to identify V(m) to a multidimensional stochastic process. We review here(More)
During activated states in vivo, neocortical neurons are subject to intense synaptic activity and high-amplitude membrane potential ðV m Þ fluctuations. These ''high-conductance'' states may strongly affect the integrative properties of cortical neurons. We investigated the responsiveness of cortical neurons during different states using a combination of(More)
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