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1 Reinforcement learning and stochastic fictitious play are apparent rivals as models of human learning. They embody quite different assumptions about the processing of information and optimization. This paper compares their properties and finds that they are far more similar than were thought. In particular, the expected motion of stochastic fictitious(More)
This paper investigates the properties of the most common form of reinforcement learning (the " basic model " of Erev and Roth, American Economic Review, 88, 848-881, 1998). Stochastic approximation theory has been used to analyse the local stability of fixed points under this learning process. However, as we show, when such points are on the boundary of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and validity of the original and a modified Medical Research Council scale for testing muscle strength in radial palsy. DESIGN Prospective, randomized validation study. PATIENTS Thirty-one patients with peripheral paresis of radial innervated forearm muscles were included. METHODS Wrist(More)
For clinical trials with multiple treatment arms or endpoints a variety of sequentially rejective, weighted Bonferroni-type tests have been proposed, such as gatekeeping procedures, fixed sequence tests, and fallback procedures. They allow to map the difference in importance as well as the relationship between the various research questions onto an adequate(More)
Clinical trials incorporating treatment selection at pre-specified interim analyses allow to integrate two clinical studies into a single, confirmatory study. In an adaptive interim analysis, treatment arms are selected based on interim data as well as external information. The specific selection rule does not need to be pre-specified in advance in order to(More)
The confirmatory analysis of pre-specified multiple hypotheses has become common in pivotal clinical trials. In the recent past multiple test procedures have been developed that reflect the relative importance of different study objectives, such as fixed sequence, fallback, and gatekeeping procedures. In addition, graphical approaches have been proposed(More)
STUDY DESIGN Electromyographic and biomechanical methods were utilized to investigate correlations between indexes of localized muscle fatigue and changes in the kinematics and kinetics of motion during a cyclic lifting task. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Recent advances in time-frequency analysis procedures for electromyographicic signal processing provide(More)
We consider the situation where in a first stage of a clinical trial several treatments are compared with a single control and the 'best' treatment(s) are selected in an interim analysis to be carried on to the second stage. We quantify the mean bias and mean square error of the conventional estimates after selection depending on the number of treatments(More)
MOTIVATION When a large number of hypotheses are investigated the false discovery rate (FDR) is commonly applied in gene expression analysis or gene association studies. Conventional single-stage designs may lack power due to low sample sizes for the individual hypotheses. We propose two-stage designs where the first stage is used to screen the 'promising'(More)
In recent months one of the most controversially discussed topics among regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, journal editors, and academia has been the sharing of patient-level clinical trial data. Several projects have been started such as the European Medicines Agency´s (EMA) "proactive publication of clinical trial data", the BMJ open data(More)