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1 Reinforcement learning and stochastic fictitious play are apparent rivals as models of human learning. They embody quite different assumptions about the processing of information and optimization. This paper compares their properties and finds that they are far more similar than were thought. In particular, the expected motion of stochastic fictitious(More)
We outline the general framework of adaptive combination tests and discuss their relationship to flexible group sequential designs. An important field of applications is sample size reassessment. We discuss reassessment rules based on conditional power arguments using either the observed or the prefixed effect size. These rules tend to lead to large(More)
This paper investigates the properties of the most common form of reinforcement learning (the " basic model " of Erev and Roth, American Economic Review, 88, 848-881, 1998). Stochastic approximation theory has been used to analyse the local stability of fixed points under this learning process. However, as we show, when such points are on the boundary of(More)
INTRODUCTION The evaluation of health-related quality of life is an established criterion for the evaluation of therapeutic measurement. Especially in the English language, a great number of different questionnaires have been developed. The original, English-language 12-item Oxford shoulder score (OSS) is a recently developed and validated patient-completed(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and validity of the original and a modified Medical Research Council scale for testing muscle strength in radial palsy. DESIGN Prospective, randomized validation study. PATIENTS Thirty-one patients with peripheral paresis of radial innervated forearm muscles were included. METHODS Wrist(More)
For clinical trials with multiple treatment arms or endpoints a variety of sequentially rejective, weighted Bonferroni-type tests have been proposed, such as gatekeeping procedures, fixed sequence tests, and fallback procedures. They allow to map the difference in importance as well as the relationship between the various research questions onto an adequate(More)
The ability to select a sensitive patient population may be crucial for the development of a targeted therapy. Identifying such a population with an acceptable level of confidence may lead to an inflation in development time and cost. We present an approach that allows to decrease these costs and to increase the reliability of the population selection. It(More)
The confirmatory analysis of pre-specified multiple hypotheses has become common in pivotal clinical trials. In the recent past multiple test procedures have been developed that reflect the relative importance of different study objectives, such as fixed sequence, fallback, and gatekeeping procedures. In addition, graphical approaches have been proposed(More)
Mouse units used to quantify the activity of botulinum A toxin preparations are not equivalent and issues concerning efficacy and safety remain with regard to their respective potencies and diffusion qualities in human tissue. We compared the effects of Botox (BOT) and Dysport (DYS) in different doses and dilutions in a human skin model. Eighteen (8 women,(More)
  • M Posch
  • 1999
Win-stay, lose-shift, the principle to retain a successful action is a simple and general learning rule that can be applied to all types of repeated decision problems. In this paper I consider win-stay, lose-shift strategies with diverse memory sizes and strategies that adapt their aspiration levels, i.e. the payoff level considered as "success". I study(More)