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– Remains of an early hominid have been recovered from four localities in the Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, in sediments aged ca 6 Ma. 13 fossils are known, belonging to at least five individuals. The femora indicate that the Lukeino hominid was a biped when on the ground, whilst its humerus and manual phalanx show that it possessed some arboreal(More)
Late Miocene fossils from the Lukeino Formation in Kenya's Tugen Hills are assigned to Orrorin tugenensis. Of 20 fossils recovered there to date, 3 are proximal femurs. One of these, BAR 1002'00, preserves an intact head connected to the proximal shaft by an elongated neck. Although this fossil is comparable in size to Pan troglodytes, computerized(More)
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-haem iron-dependent oxidase, catalyses the biosynthesis of isopenicillin N (IPN), the precursor of all penicillins and cephalosporins. The key steps in this reaction are the two iron-dioxygen-mediated ring closures of the tripeptide delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). It has been proposed that the(More)
17 18 Understanding shifts in past climatic and environmental conditions are crucial for throwing light 19 on human evolution. Available reconstructions of the palaeoecology of faunal and floral assemblages 20 indicate that the earliest Kenyan hominids, including Orrorin tugenensis, are associated with forest 21 landscapes. In this study, we present stable(More)
We report here the discovery of a Miocene hominoid from Berg Aukas, Namibia, the first known from the African continent south of equatorial East Africa. This represents a major range extension of Miocene Hominoidea in Africa to latitude 20 degrees S. The holotype, a right mandibular corpus preserving the crowns of the P4-M3, partial crown and root of the(More)
A small sample of hyracoid fossils from the late Miocene (,6.1 Ma) deposits at Lemudong'o, Narok, Kenya, belong to Dendrohyrax. This genus was unknown in the fossil record until recently, when almost simultaneously it was discovered at Lukeino (6 Ma) and Lemudong'o, both in Kenya. The fossils from Lemudong'o belong to a small species of the genus, not very(More)
In chimpanzees, the cutting edge of the incisor battery is longer in relation to the length of the molar row than in any other hominoid, extant or fossil, the only other lineage approaching it being the orangutan. Apart from their increased mesio-distal dimensions, the upper and lower incisors of chimpanzees differ in additional ways from those of almost(More)
The Middle Eocene locality of Eocliff, Namibia, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna, including mainly mammals, but also a few bird remains. A coracoid and a scapula are ascribed to a new genus and a new species of galliform in the extinct family Paraortygidae. This family was so far known only from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene of the northern(More)