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The recent cerithioid malacofauna of meromictic Lake Tanganyika is unique in its degree of thalassoid convergence with marine molluscs. This is generally considered the result of a long-lasting intensive escalation and cladogenesis caused by a coevolutionary prey–predator interaction in a freshwater ecosystem with sea-like characteristics, i.e. exceptional(More)
During late Cenozoic pre-rift times the viviparid genus Bellamya was probably confined to eastern Africa while in the Congo Basin occurred the genera Neothauma and Kaya (a new genus described herein). During the Pliocene, Kaya became extinct and Neothauma became a relict in Lake Tanganyika. All African rift lakes formed during or after the Pliocene were(More)
The Albertine Rift Valley (Uganda-Zaire) contains vast sedimentary sequences of late Cenozoic age. They were deposited in an extensive riftlake, Lake Obweruka, which existed from c. 8 Ma to 2.5 Ma and was comparable in size and depth to the present L. Tanganyika. Many freshwater molluscs that occur in these lacustrine deposits are characterised by their(More)
Late Miocene fossils from the Lukeino Formation in Kenya's Tugen Hills are assigned to Orrorin tugenensis. Of 20 fossils recovered there to date, 3 are proximal femurs. One of these, BAR 1002'00, preserves an intact head connected to the proximal shaft by an elongated neck. Although this fossil is comparable in size to Pan troglodytes, computerized(More)
One of the key features that separates humans and their closest relatives (extinct species of the genus Homo and Praeanthropus and the australopithecines Australopithecus and Paranthropus) on the one hand, from the other hominoids, on the other, is their obligate bipedal locomotion when on the ground. This major difference from the generally quadrupedal(More)
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-haem iron-dependent oxidase, catalyses the biosynthesis of isopenicillin N (IPN), the precursor of all penicillins and cephalosporins. The key steps in this reaction are the two iron-dioxygen-mediated ring closures of the tripeptide delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). It has been proposed that the(More)
We report here the discovery of a Miocene hominoid from Berg Aukas, Namibia, the first known from the African continent south of equatorial East Africa. This represents a major range extension of Miocene Hominoidea in Africa to latitude 20 degrees S. The holotype, a right mandibular corpus preserving the crowns of the P4-M3, partial crown and root of the(More)
17 18 Understanding shifts in past climatic and environmental conditions are crucial for throwing light 19 on human evolution. Available reconstructions of the palaeoecology of faunal and floral assemblages 20 indicate that the earliest Kenyan hominids, including Orrorin tugenensis, are associated with forest 21 landscapes. In this study, we present stable(More)