Martin Parniske

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Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), a symbiosis between plants and members of an ancient phylum of fungi, the Glomeromycota, improves the supply of water and nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrogen, to the host plant. In return, up to 20% of plant-fixed carbon is transferred to the fungus. Nutrient transport occurs through symbiotic structures inside plant root(More)
Tomato Cf genes confer resistance to C. fulvum, reside in complex loci carrying multiple genes, and encode predicted membrane-bound proteins with extracytoplasmic leucine-rich repeats. At least two Cf-9 homologs confer novel C. fulvum resistance specificities. Comparison of 11 genes revealed 7 hypervariable amino acid positions in a motif of the(More)
PR1 is a pathogenesis-related protein encoded in the parsley genome by a family of three genes (PR1-1, PR1-2 and PR1-3). Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in a transient expression system demonstrated the presence of two fungal elicitor responsive elements in each of the PR1-1 and PR1-2 promoters. These elements, W1, W2 and W3, contain the sequence(More)
Most higher plant species can enter a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which plant carbon is traded for fungal phosphate. This is an ancient symbiosis, which has been detected in fossils of early land plants. In contrast, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses of plants with bacteria evolved more recently, and are phylogenetically(More)
In Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), RPP5 confers resistance to the pathogen Peronospora parasitica. RPP5 is part of a clustered multigene family encoding nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. We compared 95 kb of DNA sequence carrying the Ler RPP5 haplotype with the corresponding 90 kb of Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col-0).(More)
We describe a complete gene family encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC in one particular plant species. In parsley (Petroselinum crispum), the PAL gene family comprises two closely related members, PAL1 and PAL2, whose TATA-proximal promoter and coding regions are almost identical, and two additional members, PAL3 and PAL4, with less(More)
The clubroot disease of the family Brassicaceae is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae. Infected roots undergo a developmental switch that results in the formation of aberrant roots (clubs). To investigate host gene expression during the development of the disease, we have used the Arabidopsis ATH1 genome array. Two timepoints(More)
Nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) occur in two major forms-Actinorhiza and legume-rhizobium symbiosis-which differ in bacterial partner, intracellular infection pattern, and morphogenesis. The phylogenetic restriction of nodulation to eurosid angiosperms indicates a common and recent evolutionary invention, but the molecular steps involved are(More)
A combined genetic and transcriptome analysis was performed to study the molecular basis of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis. By testing the AM phenotype of nodulation-impaired mutants and complementation analysis, we defined seven Lotus japonicus common symbiosis genes (SYMRK, CASTOR, POLLUX, SYM3, SYM6, SYM15, and SYM24) that are required for both(More)
Nuclear calcium oscillations are a hallmark of symbiotically stimulated plant root cells. Activation of the central nuclear decoder, calcium- and calmodulin-dependent kinase (CCaMK), triggers the entire symbiotic program including root nodule organogenesis, but the mechanism of signal transduction by CCaMK was unknown. We show that CYCLOPS, a direct(More)