Martin P. Paulus

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Decision making and risk taking are interrelated processes that are important for daily functioning. The somatic marker hypothesis has provided a conceptual basis for processes involved in risk-taking decision making and has been used to link discrete neural substrates to risk-related behaviors. This investigation examined the hypothesis that the degree of(More)
We propose a general hypothesis that integrates affective and cognitive processing with neuroanatomy to explain anxiety pronenes. The premise is that individuals who are prone to anxiety show an altered interoceptive prediction signal, i.e., manifest augmented detection of the difference between the observed and expected body state. As a consequence, the(More)
Dopamine is known to regulate several behavioral phenomena, including sensorimotor gating and aspects of motor activity. The roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in these behaviors have been documented in the rat literature, but few reports exist on their role in mice. We used dopamine transporter (DAT) (-/-) mice to examine the behavioral consequences of(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased amygdala reactivity during processing of certain types of emotional stimuli (e.g., fear, anger) has been observed in patients with anxiety disorders such as social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is uncertain whether this heightened amygdala reactivity is specific to treatment-seeking patients with anxiety disorders(More)
Marijuana intoxication appears to impair response inhibition, but it is unclear if impaired inhibition and associated brain abnormalities persist after prolonged abstinence among adolescent users. We hypothesized that brain activation during a go/no-go task would show persistent abnormalities in adolescent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence.(More)
Delay discounting refers to the fact that an immediate reward is valued more than the same reward if it occurs some time in the future. To examine the neural substrates underlying this process, we studied 13 healthy volunteers who repeatedly had to decide between an immediate and parametrically varied delayed hypothetical reward using a delay discounting(More)
More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging may elucidate the pathophysiologic features of anxiety disorders and the site of action of anxiolytic drugs. A large body of evidence suggests that the amygdala and associated limbic structures play a critical role in the expression of anxiety and may be treatment targets for anxiolytic drugs. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)
BACKGROUND Investigations of unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused primarily on major depressive episode remission/recovery and relapse/recurrence. This is the first prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of the weekly symptomatic course of MDD. METHODS The weekly depressive symptoms of 431 patients with MDD seeking treatment at 5(More)
We present a temporal map of key processes that occur during decision making, which consists of three stages: 1) formation of preferences among options, 2) selection and execution of an action, and 3) experience or evaluation of an outcome. This framework can be used to integrate findings of traditional choice psychology, neuropsychology, brain lesion(More)