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Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within(More)
Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi-immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncomplicated malaria or(More)
Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is expected to decline with increasing distance along a(More)
Travelers have the potential both to acquire and to spread dengue virus infection. The incidence of dengue fever (DF) among European travelers certainly is underestimated, because few centers use standardized diagnostic procedures for febrile patients. In addition, DF is currently not reported in most European public health systems. Surveillance has(More)
BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic infection worldwide, possibly due to climate change and demographic shifts. It is regarded as endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, for most countries scarce epidemiological data, if any, exist. The primary objectives were to describe the prevalence of leptospirosis in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most sensitive and specific method to detect malaria parasites, and have acknowledged value in research settings. However, the time lag between sample collection, transportation and processing, and dissemination of results back to the physician limits the usefulness of PCR in routine clinical practice.(More)
BACKGROUND Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase(More)
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising strategy for malaria control in infants. We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa. METHODS We pooled data from six double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials (undertaken one each in Tanzania,(More)
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive treatment aims to maximize the protective effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis while minimizing the deleterious effects. METHODS In Gabon, 1189 infants received either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; 250 and 12.5 mg, respectively) or placebo at 3, 9, and 15 months of age. Children were actively followed-up until 18 months(More)
All symptoms and signs of uncomplicated malaria are non-specific, as shared with other febrile conditions, and can occur early or later in the course of the disease. In endemic areas, the presence of hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and anaemia is clearly associated with malaria, particularly in children. Fever, cephalgias, fatigue, malaise, and(More)