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Asteroid 21 Lutetia was approached by the Rosetta spacecraft on 10 July 2010. The additional Doppler shift of the spacecraft radio signals imposed by 21 Lutetia's gravitational perturbation on the flyby trajectory were used to determine the mass of the asteroid. Calibrating and correcting for all Doppler contributions not associated with Lutetia, a(More)
This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the(More)
The daytime martian ionosphere has been observed as a two-layer structure with electron densities that peak at altitudes between about 110 and 130 kilometers. The Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science Experiment on the European Mars Express spacecraft observed, in 10 out of 120 electron density profiles, a third ionospheric layer at altitude ranges of 65 to(More)
Images obtained by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft reveal that asteroid 21 Lutetia has a complex geology and one of the highest asteroid densities measured so far, 3.4 ± 0.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The north pole region is covered by a thick layer of regolith, which is seen(More)
The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and was inserted into orbit around Mars in December 2003. Its main objective is to study the Mars' subsurface, surface, atmosphere and interaction with the solar wind. A secondary objective is to study the martian moons, in particular the largest one Phobos, thanks to a near polar and elliptical orbit which(More)
The atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus have been studied in the past by spacecraft with remote sensing or in situ techniques. These early missions, however, have left us with questions about, for example, the atmospheric structure in the transition region from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere (50-90 km) and the remarkably variable structure of(More)
Foreword Venus Express, an Orbiter for the study of the atmosphere, the plasma environment, and the surface of Venus, is a mission which was proposed to ESA in response to the Call for Ideas to re-use the Mars Express platform issued in March 2001. Venus Express together with two other missions, Cosmic DUNE and SPORT Express, was selected by ESA's Space(More)
This paper presents an analysis that searched for systematic effects within the CoRoT exoplanet field light curves. The analysis identified a systematic effect that modified the zero point of most CoRoT exposures as a function of stellar magnitude. We could find this effect only after preparing a set of learning light curves that were relatively free of(More)
In this paper, we present the first grid-free, out-of-core GPU voxelization method. Our method combines efficient parallel triangle voxelization on GPU with out-of-core technologies in order to allow the processing of scenes with large triangle counts at a high resolution. We directly generate the voxelized data in a sparse voxel octree (SVO)(More)
The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, making closest approach on 14 July 2015. Pluto's surface displays diverse landforms, terrain ages, albedos, colors, and composition gradients. Evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, surface ice convection, wind streaks, volatile transport, and(More)