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Weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes are inversely associated with a high intake of insoluble cereal fibres. Because nutrient-induced changes of 'satiety hormones' from the gut may play a role in this process, we evaluated the effects of purified insoluble fibres on postprandial responses of plasma peptide YY (PYY), serum ghrelin and satiety as secondary(More)
OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 improves insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in obese or diabetic animal models, while human studies revealed increased FGF-21 levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Given that FGF-21 has been suggested to be a peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR) alpha-dependent regulator of fasting metabolism,(More)
OBJECTIVE Cereal fiber intake is linked to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological observations. The pathogenic background of this phenomenon is unknown. Based on recent findings, we hypothesized that intake of purified insoluble oat fiber may improve whole-body insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, controlled,(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney function or type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
BACKGROUND Diets high in cereal-fiber (HCF) have been shown to improve whole-body insulin sensitivity. In search for potential mechanisms we hypothesized that a supplemented HCF-diet influences the composition of the human gut microbiota and/or biomarkers of colonic carbohydrate fermentation. METHODS We performed a randomized controlled 18-week(More)
BACKGROUND The levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) - the carrier protein for Vitamin A in plasma - are tightly regulated under healthy circumstances. The kidney, the main site of RBP4 catabolism, contributes to an elevation of RBP4 levels during chronic kidney disease (CKD) whereas during chronic liver disease (CLD) RBP4 levels decrease. Little is(More)
Menopause and premature gonadal steroid deficiency are associated with increases in fat mass and body weight. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice also show reduced locomotor activity. Glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide (GIP) is known to play an important role both in fat metabolism and locomotor activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that the effects of(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin clearance is decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for unknown reasons. Subjects with metabolic syndrome are hyperinsulinemic and have an increased risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) and different components of metabolic syndrome and tested the hypothesis that HIC may(More)
BACKGROUND Soy isoflavones show structural and functional similarities to estradiol. Available data indicate that estradiol and estradiol-like components may interact with gut "satiety hormones" such as peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and thus influence body weight. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with 34 healthy(More)
We evaluated the ability of simple and complex surrogate-indices to identify individuals from an overweight/obese cohort with hepatic insulin-resistance (HEP-IR). Five indices, one previously defined and four newly generated through step-wise linear regression, were created against a single-cohort sample of 77 extensively characterised participants with the(More)