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Predictions based on evolutionary theory suggest that the adaptive value of evolved herbicide resistance alleles may be compromised by the existence of fitness costs. There have been many studies quantifying the fitness costs associated with novel herbicide resistance alleles, reflecting the importance of fitness costs in determining the evolutionary(More)
Twenty-two amino acid substitutions at seven conserved amino acid residues in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene have been identified to date that confer target-site resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in biotypes of field-evolved resistant weed species. However, the effect of resistance mutations on AHAS functionality and plant growth has been(More)
Costs of resistance are predicted to reduce plant productivity in herbicide-resistant weeds. Lolium rigidum herbicide-susceptible individuals (S), individuals possessing cytochrome P450-based herbicide metabolism (P450) and multiple resistant individuals possessing a resistant ACCase and enhanced cytochrome P450 metabolism (ACCase/P450) were grown in the(More)
The dynamics of herbicide resistance evolution in plants are influenced by many factors, especially the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Herbicide resistance can be endowed by enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism because of the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, although in weedy plants the genetic control of cytochrome P450-endowed(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Temperate endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium sp.) grasses have been shown to exhibit an ecological advantage over endophyte-uninfected grasses under abiotic stressful conditions. It is predicted that endophyte-infected plant populations will display higher rates of germination and proportion of germinated seeds under limiting water(More)
Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to(More)
BACKGROUND In a large cropping area of northern Argentina, Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) has evolved towards glyphosate resistance. This study aimed to determine the molecular and biochemical basis conferring glyphosate resistance in this species. Experiments were conducted to assess target EPSPS gene sequences and (14)C-glyphosate leaf absorption and(More)
Plants exhibit a number of adaptive defence traits that endow resistance to past and current abiotic and biotic stresses. It is generally accepted that these adaptations will incur a cost when plants are not challenged by the stress to which they have become adapted--the so-called 'cost of adaptation'. The need to minimise or account for allelic variation(More)
Agricultural weeds evolve in response to crop cultivation. Nevertheless, the central importance of evolutionary ecology for understanding weed invasion, persistence and management in agroecosystems is not widely acknowledged. This paper calls for more evolutionarily-enlightened weed management, in which management principles are informed by evolutionary(More)
BACKGROUND Gene mutations that endow herbicide resistance may cause pleiotropic effects on plant ecology and physiology. This paper reports on the effect of a number of known and novel target-site resistance mutations of the ALS gene (Ala-122-Tyr, Pro-197-Ser, Asp-376-Glu or Trp-574-Leu) on vegetative growth traits of the weed Raphanus raphanistrum. (More)