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The most common representation of sea ice dynamics in climate models assumes that sea ice is a quasi-continuous non-normal fluid with a viscous-plastic rheology. This rheology leads to non-linear sea ice momentum equations that are notoriously difficult to solve. Recently a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) solver was shown to solve the equations… (More)

11 Current sea ice models use numerical schemes based on a splitting in time 12 between the momentum and continuity equations. Because the ice strength 13 is explicit when solving the momentum equation, this can create unrealis-14 tic ice stress gradients when using a large time step. As a consequence, 15 noise develops in the numerical solution and these… (More)

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