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Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give,(More)
The proper function of immune surveillance requires well-coordinated mechanisms in order to guide the patrolling immune cells through peripheral tissues and into secondary lymphoid organs. Analyzing gene-targeted mice, we identified the chemokine receptor CCR7 as an important organizer of the primary immune response. CCR7-deficient mice show severely(More)
Lymphoid follicles are B-cell-rich compartments of lymphoid organs that function as sites of B-cell antigen encounter and differentiation. CXC chemokine receptor-5 (CXCR5) is required for B-cell migration to splenic follicles, but the requirements for homing to B-cell areas in lymph nodes remain to be defined. Here we show that lymph nodes contain two types(More)
Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5(+) and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively(More)
Chemokines and their receptors have been identified as major regulators controlling the functional organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a chemokine receptor required for B cell homing to B cell follicles, defines a novel subpopulation of B helper T cells localizing to follicles. In(More)
Understanding the lineage differentiation of memory T cells is a central question in immunology. We investigated this issue by analysing the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which defines distinct subsets of naive and memory T lymphocytes with different homing and effector capacities and antiviral immune responses to HIV and cytomegalovirus. Ex(More)
We describe the phenotype of gene-targeted mice lacking the putative chemokine receptor BLR1. In normal mice, this receptor is expressed on mature B cells and a subpopulation of T helper cells. Blr1 mutant mice lack inguinal lymph nodes and possess no or only a few phenotypically abnormal Peyer's patches. The migration of lymphocytes into splenic follicles(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) have been showed to both produce and respond to chemokines. To understand how this may impact on DC function, we analyzed the kinetics of chemokine production and responsiveness during DC maturation. After stimulation with LPS, TNF-alpha or CD40 ligand, the inflammatory chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and IL-8 were produced rapidly and(More)
Antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) are used as natural adjuvants for vaccination, but the factors that influence the efficacy of this treatment are poorly understood. We investigated the parameters that affect the migration of subcutaneously injected mouse-mature DCs to the draining lymph node. We found that the efficiency of DC migration varied with the(More)
The generation of high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells critically depends on the presence of CD4 T cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. GC T cells are so far incompletely characterized in terms of phenotype and function. Here, we show that human follicular B helper T (T(FH)) cells are characterized by high expression of the homeostatic(More)