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When developing hard-or software systems one starts with a collection of requirements. Most requirements arise due to the needs of the customer, others originate from design decisions and further constraints. Of course, the final system should fulfill these requirements. Besides general requirements like scala-bility and performance, there is often a large(More)
In this paper, a brief account of the field of runtime verification is given. Starting with a definition of runtime verification, a comparison to well-known verification techniques like model checking and testing is provided, and applications in which runtime verification brings out its distinguishing features are pointed out. Moreover , extensions of(More)
When monitoring a system wrt. a property defined in a temporal logic such as LTL, a major concern is to settle with an adequate interpretation of observable system events; that is, models of temporal logic formulae are usually infinite words of events, whereas at runtime only finite but incrementally expanding prefixes are available. In this work, we review(More)
This article studies runtime verification of properties expressed either in lineartime temporal logic (LTL) or timed lineartime temporal logic (TLTL). It classifies runtime verification in identifying its distinguishing features to model checking and testing, respectively. It introduces a three-valued semantics (with truth values <i>true, false,(More)
Software product line engineering combines the individual developments of systems to the development of a family of systems consisting of common and variable assets. In this paper we introduce the process algebra PL-CCS as a product line extension of CCS and show how to model the overall behavior of an entire family within PL-CCS. PL-CCS models incorporate(More)
This paper proposes a novel abstraction technique for continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs). Our technique fits within the realm of three-valued abstraction methods that have been used successfully for traditional model checking. The key idea is to apply abstraction on uniform CTMCs that are readily obtained from general CTMCs, and to abstract transition(More)
The good, the bad, and the ugly— but how ugly is ugly? The good, the bad, and the ugly, but how ugly is ugly? Abstract. When monitoring a system wrt. a property defined in a temporal logic such as LTL, a major concern is to settle with an adequate interpretation of observable system events; that is, models of temporal logic formulae are usually infinite(More)