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Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key(More)
1. Electrical stimulation of the infraorbital nerve was used to examine the coupling between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rat somatosensory cortex by laser Doppler flowmetry and extracellular recordings of field potentials. 2. The relationship between field potential (FP) and CBF amplitudes was examined as a function of the stimulus(More)
The coupling of electrical activity in the brain to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest because hemodynamic changes are used to track brain function. Recent studies, especially those investigating the cerebellar cortex, have shown that the spike rate in the principal target cell of a brain region (i.e. the efferent cell) does not affect(More)
1. Mechanisms of activity-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were examined in rat cerebellar cortex using the laser Doppler flow technique and extracellular recordings of single unit activity and field potentials. 2. Stimulation of the monosynaptic climbing fibre system evoked long-lasting complex spikes in Purkinje cells, and extracellular(More)
Electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity was recorded for up to 129 h from 12 acutely brain-injured human patients using six platinum electrodes placed near foci of damaged cortical tissue. The method probes ECoG activity in the immediate vicinity of the injured cortex and in adjacent supposedly healthy tissue. Six out of twelve patients displayed a total of(More)
The term cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) describes a wave of mass neuronal depolarization associated with net influx of cations and water. Clusters of prolonged CSDs were measured time-locked to progressive ischaemic damage in human cortex. CSD induces tone alterations in resistance vessels, causing either transient hyperperfusion (physiological(More)
Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate that neuronal activity and the neurotransmitter glutamate evoke(More)
A key goal in functional neuroimaging is to use signals that are related to local changes in metabolism and blood flow to track the neuronal correlates of mental activity. Recent findings indicate that the dendritic processing of excitatory synaptic inputs correlates more closely than the generation of spikes with brain imaging signals. The correlation is(More)
Increased neuron and astrocyte activity triggers increased brain blood flow, but controversy exists over whether stimulation-induced changes in astrocyte activity are rapid and widespread enough to contribute to brain blood flow control. Here, we provide evidence for stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) elevations with rapid onset and short duration in a large proportion(More)
Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a reliable method for estimation of relative changes of CBF. The measurement depth depends on wavelength of the laser light and the separation distance of transmitting and recording optical fibers. We designed an LDF probe using two wavelengths of laser light (543 nm and 780 nm), and three separation distances of optical(More)