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Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key(More)
The term cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) describes a wave of mass neuronal depolarization associated with net influx of cations and water. Clusters of prolonged CSDs were measured time-locked to progressive ischaemic damage in human cortex. CSD induces tone alterations in resistance vessels, causing either transient hyperperfusion (physiological(More)
Functional neuroimaging signals are generated, in part, by increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) evoked by mediators, such as nitric oxide and arachidonic acid derivatives that are released in response to increased neurotransmission. However, it is unknown whether the vascular and metabolic responses within a given brain area differ when local neuronal(More)
A key goal in functional neuroimaging is to use signals that are related to local changes in metabolism and blood flow to track the neuronal correlates of mental activity. Recent findings indicate that the dendritic processing of excitatory synaptic inputs correlates more closely than the generation of spikes with brain imaging signals. The correlation is(More)
Electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity was recorded for up to 129 h from 12 acutely brain-injured human patients using six platinum electrodes placed near foci of damaged cortical tissue. The method probes ECoG activity in the immediate vicinity of the injured cortex and in adjacent supposedly healthy tissue. Six out of twelve patients displayed a total of(More)
Functional neuroimaging relies on the robust coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the physiological basis of the neuroimaging signals is still poorly understood. We examined the mechanisms of activity-dependent changes in tissue oxygenation in relation to variations in CBF responses and postsynaptic activity in(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with a dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis and increased energy metabolism. There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is the mechanism of migraine, and involved in progressive neuronal injury in stroke and head trauma. Here we tested the hypothesis that single episodes of(More)
Brain's electrical activity correlates strongly to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)). Subthreshold synaptic processes correlate better than the spike rates of principal neurons to CBF, CMRO(2) and positive BOLD signals. Stimulation-induced rises in CMRO(2) are controlled by the ATP turnover, which(More)
Neuronal activity is tightly coupled with brain energy metabolism. Numerous studies have suggested that lactate is equally important as an energy substrate for neurons as glucose. Lactate production is reportedly triggered by glutamate uptake, and independent of glutamate receptor activation. Here we show that climbing fibre stimulation of cerebellar(More)
We investigated the quantitative relation between neuronal activity and blood flow by means of a general parametric mathematical model which described the neuro-vascular system as being dynamic, linear, time-invariant, and subjected to additive noise. The model was constructed from measurements by means of system identification methods and validated across(More)