Martin Kulldorff

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Spatial scan statistics are widely used for count data to detect geographical disease clusters of high or low incidence, mortality or prevalence and to evaluate their statistical significance. Some data are ordinal or continuous in nature, however, so that it is necessary to dichotomize the data to use a traditional scan statistic for count data. There is(More)
We present a new method of detection and inference for spatial clusters of a disease. To avoid ad hoc procedures to test for clustering, we have a clearly defined alternative hypothesis and our test statistic is based on the likelihood ratio. The proposed test can detect clusters of any size, located anywhere in the study region. It is not restricted to(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance(More)
High breast cancer mortality rates have been reported in the northeastern part of the United States, with recent attention focused on Long Island, New York. In this study, the authors investigate whether the high breast cancer mortality is evenly spread over the Northeast, in the sense that any observed clusters of deaths can be explained by chance alone,(More)
OBJECTIVES This article presents a space-time scan statistic, useful for evaluating space-time cluster alarms, and illustrates the method on a recent brain cancer cluster alarms in Los Alamos, NM. METHODS The space-time scan statistic accounts for the preselection bias and multiple testing inherent in a cluster alarm. Confounders and time trends can be(More)
The spatial scan statistic is commonly used for geographical disease cluster detection, cluster evaluation and disease surveillance. The most commonly used shape of the scanning window is circular. In this paper we explore an elliptic version of the spatial scan statistic, using a scanning window of variable location, shape (eccentricity), angle and size,(More)
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has established a syndromic surveillance system that monitors emergency department visits to detect disease outbreaks early. Routinely collected chief complaint information is transmitted electronically to the health department daily and analyzed for temporal and spatial aberrations. Respiratory,(More)
In disease surveillance, there are often many different data sets or data groupings for which we wish to do surveillance. If each data set is analysed separately rather than combined, the statistical power to detect an outbreak that is present in all data sets may suffer due to low numbers in each. On the other hand, if the data sets are added by taking the(More)
Cooking meat at high temperatures produces heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Processed meats contain N-nitroso compounds. Meat intake may increase cancer risk as HCAs, PAHs, and N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic in animal models. We investigated meat, processed meat, HCAs, and the PAH benzo(a)pyrene and the risk of(More)