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During endochondral bone development, the first osteoblasts differentiate in the perichondrium surrounding avascular cartilaginous rudiments; the source of trabecular osteoblasts inside the later bone is, however, unknown. Here, we generated tamoxifen-inducible transgenic mice bred to Rosa26R-LacZ reporter mice to follow the fates of stage-selective subsets(More)
How adult tissue stem and niche cells respond to the nutritional state of an organism is not well understood. Here we find that Paneth cells, a key constituent of the mammalian intestinal stem-cell (ISC) niche, augment stem-cell function in response to calorie restriction. Calorie restriction acts by reducing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1(More)
The Embden-Meyerhof (EM) or Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathways of sugar degradation were analyzed in representative species of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Thermococcus, Desulfurococcus, Thermoproteus, and Sulfolobus, and in the hyperthermophilic (eu)bacterial genus Thermotoga. The analyses included (1) determination of 13C-labeling patterns by 1H- and(More)
Human clinical trials in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are presently underway without prior validation in a mouse model for the disease. In response to this void, we characterized bone marrow-derived murine MSC for their ability to modulate immune responses in the context of T1D, as represented in NOD mice. In comparison(More)
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a mass-forming chronic fibroinflammatory condition centered on the pancreatobiliary system and characterized by predominant immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cells. Recent reports have brought to light the multiorgan involvement of this disease. We describe a series of 5 cases of tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN)(More)
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) comprises ∼13 genetically distinct lysosomal disorders primarily affecting the central nervous system. Here we report successful reprograming of patient fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the two most common NCL subtypes: classic late-infantile NCL, caused by TPP1(CLN2) mutation, and juvenile(More)
BACKGROUND Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative products of ethanol metabolism, are formed by the esterification of fatty acids and ethanol. Alcoholic subjects have high levels of FAEE in the circulation as well as in organs and tissues, especially those most often damaged by ethanol abuse. Our previous studies showed a significant synthesis of FAEE(More)
Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes represents a common pathway in the pathogenesis of proteinuria across a spectrum of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The GTPase dynamin has been implicated in the maintenance of cellular architecture in podocytes through its direct interaction with actin. Furthermore, the propensity of dynamin to(More)
Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) signature in(More)
Pituitary cells have been used for the study of hormone synthesis, secretion, and regulation. However, the lack of human cell lines of pituitary origin has made such studies in humans very difficult. Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta cytokine family, is secreted by the pituitary and serves, in addition to regulating hormone(More)