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CTLA-4 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T and B lymphocytes. The counterreceptors for CTLA-4 are the B7 family molecules. We describe alternatively spliced mRNAs expressed in hematolymphoid tissues of humans, mice, and rats that lack the transmembrane domain coded by exon 3 of the CTLA-4 gene. These alternate transcripts(More)
Solid-phase single antigen bead (SAB) assays are standard of care for detection and identification of donor-specific antibody (DSA) in patients who receive solid organ transplantation (SOT). While several studies have documented the reproducibility and sensitivity of SAB testing for DSA, there are little data available concerning its specificity. This study(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is important for downregulation of T-cell activation, and CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies of the association between the +49 polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene in RA have provided conflicting results. In order to determine(More)
We have used a variety of standard inbred, recombinant, and congenic rat strains to establish the effect of MHC and non-MHC genetic incompatibilities on bone marrow transplantation. The role of these loci in the successful establishment of bone marrow engraftment was first determined by examining the potential of donor marrow to protect recipient rats from(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is a potent inhibitory co-stimulatory molecule believed to be involved in type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. An association has been reported of both mRNA expression and serum levels of the soluble splice variant of CTLA4 (sCTLA4) with type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, recombinant fusion proteins CTLA4Ig and(More)
We have recently identified a novel transcript of the CTLA-4 gene that may represent a native soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4). To determine whether sCTLA-4 was expressed in humans, we applied a sensitive enzyme immunoassay on serum from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD). Eleven of 20 patients with ATD had circulating levels of sCTLA-4 ranging(More)
We previously demonstrated that 7-d-old rat pups exposed to hypoxia from birth exhibit ACTH-independent increases in corticosterone associated with an increase in steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) proteins. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this increase in corticosterone could be(More)
  • M K Oaks, H Raff
  • 1995
The adrenocortical enzymes of the steroidogenic late pathway in the rat are aldosterone synthase (P450aldo), which catalyzes the production of aldosterone, and 11 beta-hydroxylase (P45011 beta), which catalyzes the production of corticosterone throughout the cortex. These two enzymes are highly homologous and are encoded by the genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1,(More)
Hypoxia leads to a decrease in aldosterone that cannot be entirely explained by extrinsic controllers of adrenal function. We have shown that acute hypoxia attenuates aldosterone synthesis via a direct inhibition of the function of the aldosterone enzyme pathway. The mechanism of the sustained decrease in aldosterone during chronic hypoxia is unknown. The(More)
Adaptation to hypoxia in the neonate requires an appropriate adrenocortical response. The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptation of the aldosterone pathway in rat pups exposed to hypoxia in vivo from birth to 7 days of age. Neonatal rats (with their lactating dams) were exposed to normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (12% O2) continuously for 7 days(More)