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CTLA-4 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T and B lymphocytes. The counterreceptors for CTLA-4 are the B7 family molecules. We describe alternatively spliced mRNAs expressed in hematolymphoid tissues of humans, mice, and rats that lack the transmembrane domain coded by exon 3 of the CTLA-4 gene. These alternate transcripts(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is important for downregulation of T-cell activation, and CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies of the association between the +49 polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene in RA have provided conflicting results. In order to determine(More)
BACKGROUND The interaction between host lymphocytes and endothelial cells on the transplanted organ is believed to play an important role in acute and chronic graft rejection. Trafficking and recruitment of lymphocytes to the site of inflammation is known to be controlled by several cytokines and chemokines. It is unclear whether endothelial cells(More)
Solid-phase single antigen bead (SAB) assays are standard of care for detection and identification of donor-specific antibody (DSA) in patients who receive solid organ transplantation (SOT). While several studies have documented the reproducibility and sensitivity of SAB testing for DSA, there are little data available concerning its specificity. This study(More)
We have recently identified a novel transcript of the CTLA-4 gene that may represent a native soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4). To determine whether sCTLA-4 was expressed in humans, we applied a sensitive enzyme immunoassay on serum from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD). Eleven of 20 patients with ATD had circulating levels of sCTLA-4 ranging(More)
We have used a variety of standard inbred, recombinant, and congenic rat strains to establish the effect of MHC and non-MHC genetic incompatibilities on bone marrow transplantation. The role of these loci in the successful establishment of bone marrow engraftment was first determined by examining the potential of donor marrow to protect recipient rats from(More)
Hypoxia leads to a decrease in aldosterone that cannot be entirely explained by extrinsic controllers of adrenal function. We have shown that acute hypoxia attenuates aldosterone synthesis via a direct inhibition of the function of the aldosterone enzyme pathway. The mechanism of the sustained decrease in aldosterone during chronic hypoxia is unknown. The(More)
We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to clone a rat complementary DNA that encoded the PVG rat granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). PCR products were cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into the mouse myeloma cell line Sp2/0-Ag14. Cell culture supernatants of two of these transfectants(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an important downregulatory molecule expressed on both T and B lymphocytes. Numerous population genetics studies have documented significant associations between autoimmune diseases and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and around the CTLA-4 region of chromosome 2 in man. Furthermore, circulating(More)