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The clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA) is fraught with difficulty and there are no pathognomonic features to discriminate the parkinsonian variant (MSA-P) from Parkinson's disease (PD). Besides the poor response to levodopa, and the additional presence of pyramidal or cerebellar signs (ataxia) or autonomic failure as major diagnostic(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of(More)
To assess severity and progression of self-perceived dysautonomia and their impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), twenty-seven patients were recruited by the European MSA Study Group (EMSA-SG). At baseline, all patients completed the Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) and the 36 item Short Form Health(More)
Multiple system atrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a markedly reduced life expectancy. Failure of symptomatic treatment raises an urgent need for disease-modifying strategies. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of erythropoietin in (proteolipid protein)-α-synuclein transgenic mice exposed to 3-nitropropionic(More)
Levodopa is generally regarded the first choice therapy for parkinsonism associated with multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). However, MSA-P patients often show a poor or unsustained levodopa response which inflicts high dose therapy. This is generally attributed to progressive striatal degeneration with loss of dopamine receptors. Experimental evidence(More)
Progressive degeneration of striatal projection neurons is thought to account for the loss of L-Dopa response observed in the majority of patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). Here we have investigated the effects of E14 embryonic striatal allografts on dopaminergic responsiveness in the unilateral double-lesion rat(More)
During the last decade, novel MR techniques have become available to support the early differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism and also to generate MR surrogate markers of disease progression. The article reviews the current state of the art focusing on three atypical parkinsonian disorders: multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy(More)
The Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) is a distinct atypical parkinsonian disorder with a loss of dopaminergic neurons comparable to that found in Parkinson's disease (PD). The additional loss of striatopallidal projections is thought to account for levodopa unresponsiveness in MSA-P. Whereas histological features of MSA-P have been(More)
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