Martin John Woodward

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Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers(More)
In cellular immunology the critical balance between effector and regulatory mechanisms is highlighted by serious immunopathologies attributable to mutations in Foxp3, a transcription factor required for a major subset of regulatory T (Tr) cells. Thus, many studies have focused on the developmental origin of Tr cells, with the prevailing view that they(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to triclosan in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. METHODS Mutants resistant to triclosan were selected from nine S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Mutants were characterized by genotyping, mutagenesis and complementation of fabI and analysis of efflux activity.(More)
The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli causes enteric disease in avian, porcine and human hosts, amongst others. To date, the only available genome sequence of B. pilosicoli is that of strain 95/1000, a porcine isolate. In the first intra-species genome comparison within the Brachyspira genus, we report the whole genome sequence of B. pilosicoli(More)
BACKGROUND Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) experiments have been used to study numerous biological problems including understanding genome plasticity in pathogenic bacteria. Typically such experiments produce large data sets that are difficult for biologists to handle. Although there are some programmes available for interpretation(More)
The roles of flagella and five fimbriae (SEF14, SEF17, SEF21, pef, lpf) in the early stages (up to 3 days) of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection have been investigated in the rat. Wild-type strains LA5 and S1400 (fim+/fla+) and insertionally inactivated mutants unable to express the five fimbriae (fim-/fla+), flagella(More)
The putative virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene contents of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli (n=629) isolated between 2005 and 2009 from humans, animals and animal food products in Germany, The Netherlands and the UK were compared using a microarray approach to test the suitability of this approach with regard to determining(More)
BACKGROUND Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated(More)
A number of poultry probiotics contain bacterial spores. In this study, orally administered spores of Bacillus subtilis germinated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of chicks. Furthermore, 20 h after spores were administered, vegetative cells outnumbered spores throughout the GI tract. This demonstrates that spore-based probiotics may function in this(More)
Despite the frequent isolation of Salmonella enterica sub. enterica serovars Derby and Mbandaka from livestock in the UK and USA little is known about the biological processes maintaining their prevalence. Statistics for Salmonella isolations from livestock production in the UK show that S. Derby is most commonly associated with pigs and turkeys and S.(More)