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Recombinant forms of the dengue 2 virus NS3 protease linked to a 40-residue co-factor, corresponding to part of NS2B, have been expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active against para-nitroanilide substrates comprising the P6-P1 residues of four substrate cleavage sequences. The enzyme is inactive alone or after the addition of a putative(More)
Development of peptide-based drugs has been severely limited by lack of oral bioavailability with less than a handful of peptides being truly orally bioavailable, mainly cyclic peptides with N-methyl amino acids and few hydrogen bond donors. Here we report that cyclic penta- and hexa-leucine peptides, with no N-methylation and five or six amide NH protons,(More)
Over the last decade, West Nile virus has spread rapidly via mosquito transmission from infected migratory birds to humans. One potential therapeutic approach to treating infection is to inhibit the virally encoded serine protease that is essential for viral replication. Here we report the crystal structure of the viral NS3 protease tethered to its(More)
The flavivirus NS2B/NS3 protease has received considerable attention as a target for the development of antiviral compounds. While substrate based inhibitors have been the primary focus to date, an approach focussing on NS2B cofactor displacement could prove to be an effective alternative. To understand better the role of the NS2B cofactor in protease(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly around the globe, efficiently crossing species from migrating birds into humans and other mammals. The viral protease NS2B-NS3 is important for WNV replication and recognizes dibasic substrate sequences common to other flaviviral proteases but different from most mammalian proteases. Potent inhibitors of WNV protease(More)
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a rapidly expanding global distribution. Infection causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in both human and animal hosts. The West Nile viral protease (NS2B-NS3) is essential for post-translational processing in host-infected cells of a viral polypeptide precursor into structural and(More)
West Nile Virus is becoming a widespread pathogen, infecting people on at least four continents with no effective treatment for these infections or many of their associated pathologies. A key enzyme that is essential for viral replication is the viral protease NS2B-NS3, which is highly conserved among all flaviviruses. Using a combination of molecular(More)
Substituted gamma-chromones were found to weakly inhibit HIV-1 proteinase, an important enzyme in the replication and processing of the AIDS virus. Chromones bearing hydroxyl substituents and a phenolic group at the 2-position (flavones) were the most active compounds and structure-activity relationships for a limited series of flavone inhibitors are(More)
Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs is a serious threat to human health, and novel agents that act on enzymes essential for parasite metabolism, such as proteases, are attractive targets for drug development. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro growth of(More)
The flaviviruses comprise a large group of related viruses, many of which pose a significant global human health threat, most notably the dengue viruses (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Flaviviruses enter host cells via fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, a process mediated by the major viral envelope protein E as it(More)