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Here we report the first direct counts of soil bacteriophage and show that substantial populations of these viruses exist in soil (grand mean = 1.5 x 10(7) g(-1)), at least 350-fold more than the highest numbers estimated from traditional viable plaque counts. Adding pure cultures of a Serratia phage to soil showed that the direct counting methods with(More)
At an alkaline pH and in aqueous solution, carbaryl hydrolyses to form 1-naphthol, methylamine and carbon dioxide, but it is much more stable at an acid pH. Two bacterial isolated from garden soil, Pseudomonas sp. (NCIB 12042) and Rhodococcus sp. (NCIB 12038), could grow on carbaryl as sole carbon and nitrogen source at pH 6.8 but failed to metabolize(More)
To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from transgenic crops to indigenous soil bacteria, transformation frequencies were obtained for naturally transformable Acinetobacter baylyi BD413 using a chromosomally integrated plant transgene. The transgene comprised sequences for two phenotypic markers: kanamycin resistance (npt II) and green fluorescent(More)
We isolated 400 aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from the sediment of unpolluted and polluted sites in a fast-flowing south Wales river. Isolates were subjected to taxonomic tests and screened for the presence of plasmid DNA by alkaline lysis and agarose gel techniques. There were no significant differences between sites in either the total percentage of(More)
In this study we present a bacteriophage isolated from the Great Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (GSP) that is shown to have a genome size of 340 kb, unusually large for a bacterial virus. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the virion showed this to be a Myoviridae, the first reported to infect the genus Halomonas. This temperate phage,(More)
The capacities of epilithic and planktonic river bacterial populations to degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in samples taken at two times during 1987 from one clean and four polluted sites in a South Wales river were estimated in die-away tests under simulated environmental conditions. There was a relatively slow disappearance of SDS in die-away tests(More)
RecA-mediated recombination requires regions of homology between donor and recipient DNA for successful integration. This paper investigates the effect of the relationship between the length of gene-sized inserts (434, 733, 2228 and 2400 bp) and flanking sequence homology (100 - ca. 11 000 bp) on transformation frequency in Acinetobacter baylyi strain(More)
The mechanism of action of biocides against viruses has not been widely studied, although two main targets are viral proteins (capsids, enzymes) and the viral genome. This study was undertaken in order to investigate the efficacy of several disinfectants against the nucleic acid of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO bacteriophage F116. Of all the biocides(More)
Several biocides commonly used in disinfection processes as antibacterial and antifungal agents were tested for activity against MS2 and K coliphages. MS2 was resistant to most biocides; only glutaraldehyde (0.5%) and peracetic acid (1%) achieved a 4-log(10) titer reduction in 20 min. In contrast, K phage was sensitive to most biocides, being resistant only(More)