Martin J. Callaghan

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Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems are widespread in Eubacteria. Haemophilus influenzae encodes a phase variable homolog of Type III R-M systems. Sequence analysis of this system in 22 non-typeable H.influenzae isolates revealed a hypervariable region in the central portion of the mod gene whereas the res gene was conserved. Maximum(More)
The opacity (Opa) proteins mediate a variety of interactions between the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis and its human host. These interactions are thought to be of central importance in both the asymptomatic colonization of the nasopharynx and the sporadic occurrence of meningococcal disease. The receptor specificities of a limited number of Opa protein(More)
The Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViPS) protects Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi (S.Typhi) in vivo by multiple mechanisms. Recent microbiological reports from typhoid endemic countries suggest that acapsulate S.Typhi may occur in nature and contribute to clinical typhoid fever that is indistinguishable from disease caused by capsulate(More)
The opa genes of the Gram negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis encode Opacity-associated outer membrane proteins whose role is to promote adhesion to the human host tissue during colonisation and invasion. Each meningococcus contains 3-4 opa loci, each of which may be occupied by one of a large number of alleles. We analysed the Opa repertoire(More)
Neisseria meningitidis causes half a million cases of septicemia and meningitis globally each year. The opacity (Opa) integral outer membrane proteins from N. meningitidis are polymorphic and highly immunogenic. Particular combinations of Opa proteins are associated with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused the majority of serogroup B(More)
Adhesion between the opacity-associated adhesin (Opa) proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and human carcino-embryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) proteins is an important stage in the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, a globally important bacterial infection. Most disease is caused by a small number of meningococcal genotypes known as(More)
Clusters of meningococcal disease caused by a hyperinvasive lineage of Neisseria meningitidis, the ST11 complex, bearing a serogroup C polysaccharide capsule, have been prominent in Europe and North America since the early 1990s. This situation has led to expensive public health measures for outbreak control and, finally, to the introduction of a serogroup(More)
Neisseria meningitidis is a major global pathogen causing invasive disease with a mortality of 5-10%. Most disease in developed countries is caused by serogroup B infection, against which there is no universal vaccine. Opacity-associated adhesin (Opa) proteins are major meningococcal outer membrane proteins, which have shown recent promise as a potential(More)
The meningococcal Opa proteins play an important role in pathogenesis by mediating invasion of human cells. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether carried and disease-associated meningococci possess different Opa repertoires and whether the diversity of these proteins is associated with clinical severity of disease. Opa repertoires in 227(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key cytokine in the defense against intracellular bacteria notably Mycobacteria and Salmonella species. We report a case of disseminated mycobacterial infection, following BCG vaccination, in a child who later developed tuberculosis. Functional tests and a novel diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, revealed a(More)