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To investigate the roles of astroglial cells, we targeted their ablation genetically. Transgenic mice were generated expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase from the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. In adult transgenic mice, 2 weeks of subcutaneous treatment with the antiviral agent ganciclovir preferentially ablated(More)
Reactive astrocytes adjacent to a forebrain stab injury were selectively ablated in adult mice expressing HSV-TK from the Gfap promoter by treatment with ganciclovir. Injured tissue that was depleted of GFAP-positive astrocytes exhibited (1) a prolonged 25-fold increase in infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes, including ultrastructurally identified(More)
On fertilisation of mouse oocytes, the fusing spermatozoon triggers a series of repetitive calcium (Ca2+) spikes. The Ca2+ spikes seem to be necessary for successful progression through the cell cycle and are regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. The spikes appear to require the linkage of continuous Ca2+ influx to the periodic release of Ca2+ from(More)
This study involved an investigation of the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in generating repetitive Ca2+ spikes at fertilization. Using a PCR-based strategy we have demonstrated that mouse oocytes have mRNA coding for PLC beta 1, PLC beta 3 and PLC gamma isoenzymes. Furthermore, immunodetection of PLC gamma 1 using monoclonal antibodies reveals that PLC(More)
The development of the early 2-cell mouse embryo to the late 2-cell stage is marked by the appearance between 23 and 26 h post-insemination of a complex of polypeptides of mol. wt. approximately 67 K. Addition of alpha-amanitin between 18 and 21 h post-insemination prevents or reduces the subsequent appearance of these polypeptides. Addition of(More)
The division of single cells, isolated from an 8-cell mouse embryo, to give 2 x 1/16 cells has been studied by sampling cells for analysis at defined stages during and after the division. Cells were analyzed for evidence of polarity in their surface organization as assessed by fluorescent ligand binding and distribution of microvilli. Individual 1/8 cells(More)
The influence of mouse oocyte chromosomes on their immediate environment has been investigated following their dispersal by dissolution of the metaphase spindle with nocodazole. Small clusters of chromosomes become redistributed around the egg cortex in a microfilament-dependent process. Each cluster has the capacity, on removal from nocodazole, to organize(More)
The effect on the microtubule system of human oocytes of cooling to room temperature for either 10 or 30 minutes has been investigated. Changes in spindle organization were found in all oocytes cooled for 30 minutes compared with control oocytes kept at 37 degrees C throughout. These changes included reduction in spindle size, disorganization of(More)
A major obstacle to the study of mammalian development, and to the practical application of knowledge gained from it in the clinic during therapeutic in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), is the propensity of embryos to become retarded or arrested during their culture in vitro. The precise developmental cell cycle in which embryos arrest or(More)
The development of the polarized surface binding of the fluoresceinated ligand concanavalin A (FITC-Con A) was studied in blastomeres of the early mouse embryo. Single 8-cell blastomeres, natural 8-cell couplets derived from the in vitro division of individual 4-cell blastomeres, and reagregated couplets made from dissociated 8-cells were cultured for(More)