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In an extension of a study by Vitu, O'Regan, Inhoff, and Topolski (1995), we compared global and local characteristics of eye movements during (1) reading, (2) the scanning of transformed text (in which each letter was replaced with a z), and (3) visual search. Additionally, we examined eye behavior with respect to specific target words of high or low(More)
This study explored the contribution of finger counting habits to the association of numbers with space (the SNARC effect). First, a questionnaire study indicated that two-thirds of 445 adults started counting on their left hand, regardless of their handedness. Secondly, a group of 53 "left-starters" but not a group of 47 "right-starters" showed a SNARC(More)
Number symbols are part of our everyday visual world. Here we show that merely looking at numbers causes a shift in covert attention to the left or right side, depending upon the number's magnitude. This observation implies obligatory activation of number meaning and signals a tight coupling of internal and external representations of space.
Subjects read either normal text, text in which the space information between words was absent (either spaces were removed filled with x), or text in which spaces were preserved but the words were flanked by x. In two experiments, reading rate decreased by approx. 50% when space information was not available, suggesting that reading unspaced text is(More)
A growing body of research suggests that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the described action. To assess this motor resonance account of language comprehension, we first review recent developments in the literature on perception and action, with a view towards language processing. We then examine studies of(More)
We have a surprising tendency to misperceive the center of visually presented words (). To understand the origin of this bias, four experiments assessed the impact of letter font, letter size, and grapheme-phoneme convergences on perceived stimulus center. Fourteen observers indicated the perceived centers of words, pseudowords, consonant strings, and lines(More)
  • M H Fischer
  • 1996
From reading errors of a neurological patient, Caramazza and Hillis concluded: (1) that word length is part of the cognitive representation of words; (2) that the spatial reference frame of this representation is centered on the word; and (3) that this representation is orientation-invariant [Nature (London), 346 (1990) 267-269]. To test these three(More)
Normal readers were asked to mark the middle of visually presented words. They made systematic errors toward the left, indicating an overestimation of the length of the beginning of a word. The number of characters determines the size of this error. The bias extended to pseudowords, letter strings, and symbols, but not to blocks, dashes, and lines. Finally,(More)
This study compared the spatial representation of numbers in three groups of adults: Canadians, who read both English words and Arabic numbers from left to right; Palestinians, who read Arabic words and Arabic-Indic numbers from right to left; and Israelis, who read Hebrew words from right to left but Arabic numbers from left to right. Canadians associated(More)