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We apply network flow techniques to find good exit selections for evacuees in an emergency evacuation. More precisely, we present two algorithms for computing exit distributions using both classical flows and flows over time which are well known from combinatorial optimization. The performance of these new proposals is compared to a simple shortest path(More)
Biofilm-based algal cultivation has received increased attention as a potential platform for algal production and other applications such as wastewater treatment. Algal biofilm cultivation systems represent an alternative to the suspension-based systems that have yet to become economically viable. One major advantage of algal biofilm systems is that algae(More)
Flows over time are used to model many real-world logistic and routing problems. The networks underlying such problems – streets, tracks, etc. – are inherently undirected and directions are only imposed on them to reduce the danger of colliding vehicles and similar problems. Thus the question arises, what influence the orientation of the network has on the(More)
BACKGROUND Algal biofilm reactors represent a promising cultivation system that can economically produce biomass without the need for expensive harvesting operations. A critical component of algal biofilm systems is the material used for attachment. This research reports a comprehensive study of the effects of material surface physico-chemical properties,(More)
Multi-commodity flows over time exhibit the non-intuitive property that letting flow wait can allow us to send flow faster overall. Fleischer and Skutella (IPCO 2002) show that the speed-up through storage is at most a factor of 2, and that there are instances where the speed-up is as large as a factor of 4/3. We close this gap by presenting a family of(More)
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