Martin Geppert

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Mice carrying a mutation in the synaptotagmin I gene were generated by homologous recombination. Mutant mice are phenotypically normal as heterozygotes, but die within 48 hr after birth as homozygotes. Studies of hippocampal neurons cultured from homozygous mutant mice reveal that synaptic transmission is severely impaired. The synchronous, fast component(More)
Neurotransmitters are released by synaptic vesicle fusion at the active zone. The active zone of a synapse mediates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release, and integrates presynaptic signals in regulating this release. Much is known about the structure of active zones and synaptic vesicles, but the functional relation between their components is poorly(More)
A family of highly polymorphic neuronal cell surface proteins, the neurexins, has been identified. At least two genes for neurexins exist. Each gene uses alternative promoters and multiple variably spliced exons to potentially generate more than a 100 different neurexin transcripts. The neurexins were discovered by the identification of one member of the(More)
Synaptotagmin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein essential for synchronous neurotransmission. We investigated its impact on the intracellular Ca(2+)-dependence of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis by combining Ca(2+)-uncaging and membrane capacitance measurements in adrenal slices from mouse synaptotagmin I null mutants. Synaptotagmin(More)
Neuropilins are receptors for class 3 secreted semaphorins, most of which can function as potent repulsive axon guidance cues. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion in the neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) locus. Many Npn-2 mutant mice are viable into adulthood, allowing us to assess the role of Npn-2 in axon guidance events throughout neural development.(More)
SV2 proteins are abundant synaptic vesicle proteins expressed in two major (SV2A and SV2B) and one minor isoform (SV2C) that resemble transporter proteins. We now show that SV2B knockout mice are phenotypically normal while SV2A- and SV2A/SV2B double knockout mice exhibit severe seizures and die postnatally. In electrophysiological recordings from cultured(More)
The Rab family of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins are thought to guide membrane fusion between a transport vesicle and the target membrane, and to determine the specificity of docking. The docking and fusion of vesicles is, however, a complex multistep reaction, and the precise point at which Rab proteins act in these sequential processes is(More)
The small GTP-binding protein Rab3A is a Rab family member that is abundant in brain synaptic vesicles. Here we show that mice in which the rab3A gene has been mutated by homologous recombination do not express Rab3A but are viable and fertile. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells indicate that most of their synaptic parameters(More)
Synaptic vesicle exocytosis occurs in consecutive steps: docking, which specifically attaches vesicles to the active zone; priming, which makes the vesicles competent for Ca(2+)-triggered release and may involve a partial fusion reaction; and the final Ca(2+)-regulated step that completes fusion. Recent evidence suggests that the critical regulation of the(More)
rab3A, a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein of synaptic vesicles with a putative function in synaptic vesicle docking, interacts in a GTP-dependent manner with rabphilin-3A, a peripheral membrane protein that binds Ca2+ and phospholipids. We now show that rabphilin-3A is an evolutionarily conserved synaptic vesicle protein that is attached to synaptic(More)