Martin G. Schwacha

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BACKGROUND Gamma delta T-cells have been shown to be important to the early immunoinflammatory response to injury, independent of infection. This unique T-cell population acts to regulate cell trafficking and the release of cytokines and growth factors. We propose this sterile inflammatory response is in part associated with damage associated molecular(More)
Tissue hypoxia is a common sequel of trauma-hemorrhage but can occur even without blood loss under hypoxic conditions. Although hypoxia is known to upregulate Kupffer cells (KC) to release cytokines, the precise mechanism of release remains unknown. We hypothesized that Src family kinases play a role in mediating KC mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
In this study, we examined whether IL-18 plays a role in lung inflammation following alcohol (EtOH) and burn injury. Male rats ( approximately 250 g) were gavaged with EtOH to achieve a blood EtOH level of approximately 100 mg/dl before burn or sham injury ( approximately 12.5% total body surface area). Immediately after injury, rats were treated with(More)
Immune responses are suppressed in males, but not in proestrous females, after trauma-hemorrhage. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol appear to be responsible for divergent immune effects. There is considerable evidence to suggest sex steroid hormone involvement in immune functions. As formation of active steroid depends on the activity of androgen- and(More)
Macrophages (Mphi) have been implicated in the suppression of lymphocyte function following thermal injury. Splenocytes isolated from C57BL/ 6NCR female mice 4-7 days after thermal injury displayed suppressed proliferative responses to Concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) production.(More)
Although studies indicate that 17beta-estradiol administration after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves cardiac and hepatic functions, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) can protect cardiac and hepatic functions, we hypothesized that these proteins contribute to the salutary effects of estradiol after(More)
A growing body of evidence indicates that heme degradation products may counteract the deleterious consequences of hypoxia and/or ischemia-reperfusion injury. Because heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction after adverse circulatory conditions is known to be protective, and because females in the proestrus cycle (with high estrogen) have better hepatic function and(More)
Protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be involved in proinflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. Akt activation also leads to the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 mediates potent, anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates organ injury. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) prevents organ damage(More)
Studies from our laboratory have shown that infection of mice with an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium causes a marked suppression in the capacity of splenocytes to generate an in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep erythrocytes. The suppression has been shown to be mediated by mature, adherent macrophages (Mphis) and nonadherent,(More)
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been proposed as the important vasoconstrictors that increase portal venous resistance in paracrine or autocrine fashion. We hypothesized that the hepatic damage following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) is induced by the impaired hepatic circulation due to the increased production of vasoconstrictors such as ET-1(More)