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The model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rodents has been used extensively to investigate the clinical settings of sepsis and septic shock. This model produces a hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic state that can lead to a hypodynamic, hypometabolic stage, and eventual death. Blood cultures are positive for enteric organisms very early after CLP. The(More)
The activation of a pro-inflammatory cascade after burn injury appears to be important in the development of subsequent immune dysfunction, susceptibility to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Macrophages are major producers of pro-inflammatory mediators and their productive capacity for these mediators is markedly enhanced following thermal injury. Thus,(More)
Studies indicate that macrophage immune responses in males are depressed after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are enhanced in females under such conditions. Nonetheless, the involvement of male and female sex steroids in this gender-dependent dimorphic immune response after trauma-hemorrhage remains unclear. To study this, male C3H/HeN mice were castrated(More)
Clinical studies indicate that peripheral blood lymphocyte functions are depressed following trauma; however, it is unclear whether tissue-fixed lymphocyte functions are also altered under those conditions. Moreover, the impact of gender and age on peripheral T-cell responses following trauma-hemorrhage (TH) are unknown. To study this, immature(More)
Severe injury deranges immune function and increases the risk of sepsis and multiple organ failure. Kupffer cells play a major role in mediating posttraumatic immune responses, in part via different Toll-like receptors (TLR). Although mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are key elements in the TLR signaling pathway, it remains unclear whether the(More)
HYPOTHESIS Sex differentially influences heme oxygenase (HO) expression following trauma and hemorrhagic shock. DESIGN Prospective controlled animal study. SETTING A university laboratory. INTERVENTIONS Female Sprague-Dawley rats in the proestrus stage of their estrus cycle and male rats underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy (ie, induction of soft(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated whether Kupffer cell phagocytosis is differentially regulated following hypoxia (by breathing hypoxic gas) and trauma-hemorrhage. We hypothesized that the differences might result from a differential activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway under those conditions. (More)
Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this(More)
Previous studies have shown marked immunosuppression in males after trauma and hemorrhage. By contrast, immunosuppression was not evident in proestrous female animals. Further support for these findings came from studies demonstrating the immunosuppressive effects of male sex hormones and immunoenhancing effects of female sex hormones. In this regard,(More)
Studies have shown gender dimorphism in cell-mediated immune responses following haemorrhage, with depressed responses in young males and maintained or enhanced responses in proestrus females. However, it remains unknown whether or not the sexually dimorphic immune response to haemorrhage provides any protection against a subsequent in vivo polymicrobial(More)