Learn More
The model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rodents has been used extensively to investigate the clinical settings of sepsis and septic shock. This model produces a hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic state that can lead to a hypodynamic, hypometabolic stage, and eventual death. Blood cultures are positive for enteric organisms very early after CLP. The(More)
The activation of a pro-inflammatory cascade after burn injury appears to be important in the development of subsequent immune dysfunction, susceptibility to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Macrophages are major producers of pro-inflammatory mediators and their productive capacity for these mediators is markedly enhanced following thermal injury. Thus,(More)
Studies indicate that macrophage immune responses in males are depressed after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are enhanced in females under such conditions. Nonetheless, the involvement of male and female sex steroids in this gender-dependent dimorphic immune response after trauma-hemorrhage remains unclear. To study this, male C3H/HeN mice were castrated(More)
Severe injury deranges immune function and increases the risk of sepsis and multiple organ failure. Kupffer cells play a major role in mediating posttraumatic immune responses, in part via different Toll-like receptors (TLR). Although mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are key elements in the TLR signaling pathway, it remains unclear whether the(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated whether Kupffer cell phagocytosis is differentially regulated following hypoxia (by breathing hypoxic gas) and trauma-hemorrhage. We hypothesized that the differences might result from a differential activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway under those conditions. (More)
Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this(More)
To understand the pathogenesis of a disease, experimental models are needed. A good experimental model is the one that simulates responses observed in the clinical setting. In recent years, clinical studies have indicated that gender might be a factor that plays a significant role in the outcome of patients with shock, trauma, and sepsis. These observations(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether reduction of circulating female sex hormones by ovariectomy causes suppression of macrophage (Mphi) function after trauma-hemorrhage and increases susceptibility to subsequent sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Studies indicate that immune functions are markedly depressed in males but not in proestrus females after(More)
Macrophages (Mphi) have been implicated in the suppression of lymphocyte function following thermal injury. Splenocytes isolated from C57BL/ 6NCR female mice 4-7 days after thermal injury displayed suppressed proliferative responses to Concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) production.(More)
Studies have shown gender dimorphism in cell-mediated immune responses following haemorrhage, with depressed responses in young males and maintained or enhanced responses in proestrus females. However, it remains unknown whether or not the sexually dimorphic immune response to haemorrhage provides any protection against a subsequent in vivo polymicrobial(More)