Martin G. Schwacha

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Immune responses are suppressed in males, but not in proestrous females, after trauma-hemorrhage. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol appear to be responsible for divergent immune effects. There is considerable evidence to suggest sex steroid hormone involvement in immune functions. As formation of active steroid depends on the activity of androgen- and(More)
Studies from our laboratory have shown that infection of mice with an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium causes a marked suppression in the capacity of splenocytes to generate an in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep erythrocytes. The suppression has been shown to be mediated by mature, adherent macrophages (Mphis) and nonadherent,(More)
Macrophages (Mphi) have been implicated in the suppression of lymphocyte function following thermal injury. Splenocytes isolated from C57BL/ 6NCR female mice 4-7 days after thermal injury displayed suppressed proliferative responses to Concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) production.(More)
Protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be involved in proinflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. Akt activation also leads to the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 mediates potent, anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates organ injury. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) prevents organ damage(More)
Recent findings from our laboratory have shown that acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication before burn injury impairs intestinal immunity and barrier functions. To further delineate the mechanism of impaired intestinal barrier function, the present study examined the role of corticosterone (CORT) and interleukin (IL)-18, as CORT and IL-18 are elevated following(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac dysfunction is a common complication associated with major burns. While recent findings have linked the Th-17 T-cell response to the development of autoimmune myocarditis, the role of IL-17 and the Th-17 T-cell response in the development of post-burn cardiac dysfunction remains unknown. METHODS Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a(More)
Recent studies have shown that administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves cardiovascular and hepatic function in male animals. Although androstenediol, one of the DHEA metabolites, has been recently reported to produce salutary effects on cardiac function and splanchnic perfusion following T-H, it remains(More)
A major complication associated with burn injury is delayed wound healing. While healing of the burn injury site is essential, healing of distal injury sites caused by surgical interventions and other processes also is important. The impact of burn injury on healing of these distal wound sites is not understood clearly. To study this, mice were subjected to(More)
Although previous studies have shown that flutamide improves cardiovascular functions following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H), the mechanisms responsible for the salutary effect remain unknown. We hypothesized that flutamide mediates its beneficial effects via an estrogen-dependent pathway through upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Gamma delta T-cells have been shown to be important to the early immunoinflammatory response to injury, independent of infection. This unique T-cell population acts to regulate cell trafficking and the release of cytokines and growth factors. We propose this sterile inflammatory response is in part associated with damage associated molecular(More)