Martin G. Schwacha

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The model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rodents has been used extensively to investigate the clinical settings of sepsis and septic shock. This model produces a hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic state that can lead to a hypodynamic, hypometabolic stage, and eventual death. Blood cultures are positive for enteric organisms very early after CLP. The(More)
Severe injury deranges immune function and increases the risk of sepsis and multiple organ failure. Kupffer cells play a major role in mediating posttraumatic immune responses, in part via different Toll-like receptors (TLR). Although mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are key elements in the TLR signaling pathway, it remains unclear whether the(More)
The activation of a pro-inflammatory cascade after burn injury appears to be important in the development of subsequent immune dysfunction, susceptibility to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Macrophages are major producers of pro-inflammatory mediators and their productive capacity for these mediators is markedly enhanced following thermal injury. Thus,(More)
p38 MAPK has been reported to regulate the inflammatory response in various cell types via extracellular stimuli. p38 MAPK activation also results in the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, which exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) prevented organ dysfunction following trauma-hemorrhage, it(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the nongenomic actions of E2 have any beneficial effect on cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage and whether those effects are mediated via the PI3K/Akt pathway. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Since studies suggest that both genomic and nongenomic pathways are involved in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol(More)
Recent studies indicate that young female proestrus mice show an enhanced immune response following trauma-haemorrhage, as opposed to the immunodepression observed in males of comparable age. Testosterone is suggested as the cause of immunodepression in males, whereas oestradiol seems to be responsible for the enhanced immune response in females, however,(More)
INTRODUCTION The high incidence of morbidity and mortality following major burn can be in part attributed to immune dysfunction and wound healing complications. Inflammation plays a major role in the complex process of wound repair. Recently, a novel class of T-helper cells, termed Th-17 cells, has been found to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17(More)
Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this(More)
Studies have shown that immune responses are depressed in male mice, but not in proestrus females after trauma-hemorrhage (TH), resulting in increased mortality from subsequent sepsis in male mice compared with female mice. These gender-specific alterations in immune function are believed to be due to differences in sex steroid levels. Aromatase is a key(More)
Although nongenomic effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) are mediated via the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha), the existence of another novel ER, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), has been suggested as a candidate for triggering a broad range of E2-mediated signaling. GPR30 also acts independently of the ER to promote activation of the protein kinase A(More)