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Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based1–5. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of(More)
Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian(More)
Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased(More)
One of the most important aspects in the research on reef-building corals is the process by which corals accrete biogenic calcium carbonate. This process leads to the formation of a mineral/organic composite and it is believed that the development of the nano- and microstructure of the mineral phase is highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Transmission(More)
The cellular basis of the magnetic sense remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One theory that aims to explain how animals detect the magnetic field is the magnetite hypothesis. It argues that intracellular crystals of the iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4) are coupled to mechanosensitive channels that elicit neuronal activity in specialized sensory cells.(More)
The symbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae is not understood at the cell or molecular level, yet this relationship is responsible for the formation of thousands of square kilometres of coral reefs. We have investigated the nature of crystalline material prominent within marine algal symbionts of Aiptasia sp. anemones. This material, which has(More)
Gold(I) phosphine complexes, such as [Au(d2pype)(2)]Cl, (1, where d2pype is 1,2-bis(di-2-pyridyl phosphinoethane)), belong to a class of promising chemotherapeutic candidates that have been shown to be selectively toxic to tumourigenic cells, and may act via uptake into tumour cell mitochondria. For a more holistic understanding of their mechanism of(More)
A critical problem associated with poorly soluble drugs is low and variable bioavailability derived from slow dissolution and erratic absorption. The preparation of nano-formulations has been identified as an approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds demonstrating limited aqueous solubility. A new technology for the production(More)
Determining bioequivalence for solution pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) is difficult because the critical characteristics of such products are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the non-aerodynamic properties of the emitted aerosol particles from two solution pMDI products that determine their biopharmaceutical differences after(More)
Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been(More)