Martin G Saunders

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Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based1–5. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of(More)
Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian(More)
The 1.88-Ga Gunflint biota is one of the most famous Precambrian microfossil lagerstätten and provides a key record of the biosphere at a time of changing oceanic redox structure and chemistry. Here, we report on pyritized replicas of the iconic autotrophic Gunflintia-Huroniospora microfossil assemblage from the Schreiber Locality, Canada, that help capture(More)
Orthopaedic metal implants composed of titanium are routinely used in bone fracture repair and for joint replacement therapies. A considerable fraction of implant recipients are unable to benefit due to implant failure resulting from aseptic loosening, while others may experience cutaneous sensitivity to titanium after implantation. An adaptive immune(More)
A critical problem associated with poorly soluble drugs is low and variable bioavailability derived from slow dissolution and erratic absorption. The preparation of nano-formulations has been identified as an approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds demonstrating limited aqueous solubility. A new technology for the production(More)
Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased(More)
One of the most exciting features of C60 and the higher fullerenes is that their carbon cages have inner cavities large enough to hold any atom and even small molecules.[1, 2] The physical and chemical properties of these caged compounds (endohedral complexes) are determined by the degree of interaction established with the p-electron shell and the overall(More)
Determining bioequivalence for solution pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) is difficult because the critical characteristics of such products are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the non-aerodynamic properties of the emitted aerosol particles from two solution pMDI products that determine their biopharmaceutical differences after(More)
Polymer nanoparticles are widely used as a highly generalizable tool to entrap a range of different drugs for controlled or site-specific release. However, despite numerous studies examining the kinetics of controlled release, the biological behavior of such nanoparticles remains poorly understood, particularly with respect to endocytosis and intracellular(More)
Published toxicology data on chitosan nanoparticles (NP) often lack direct correlation to the in situ size and surface characteristics of the nanoparticles, and the repeated NP assaults as experienced in chronic use. The aim of this paper was to breach these gaps. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by spinning disc processing were characterised for size and(More)