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Brain metastasis frequently occurs in individuals with cancer and is often fatal. We used multiphoton laser scanning microscopy to image the single steps of metastasis formation in real time. Thus, it was possible to track the fate of individual metastasizing cancer cells in vivo in relation to blood vessels deep in the mouse brain over minutes to months.(More)
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, can have a beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease by phagocytosing amyloid-beta. Two-photon in vivo imaging of neuron loss in the intact brain of living Alzheimer's disease mice revealed an involvement of microglia in neuron elimination, indicated by locally increased number and migration velocity of microglia(More)
The Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins, termed APLP1 and APLP2. We previously documented that APLP2-/-APLP1-/- and APLP2-/-APP-/- mice die postnatally, while APLP1-/-APP-/- mice and single mutants were viable. We now report that mice lacking all three(More)
Before the onset of locomotion, the hippocampus undergoes a transition into an activity-state specialized for the processing of spatially related input. This brain-state transition is associated with increased firing rates of CA1 pyramidal neurons and the occurrence of theta oscillations, which both correlate with locomotion velocity. However, the neural(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the invariant accumulation of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), which mediates synapse loss and cognitive impairment in AD. Current therapeutic approaches concentrate on reducing Abeta levels and amyloid plaque load via modifying or inhibiting(More)
The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, neuronal death, and synaptic loss. By means of long-term two-photon in vivo imaging and confocal imaging, we characterized the spatio-temporal pattern of dendritic spine loss for the first time in 3xTg-AD mice. These(More)
The kinetics of amyloid plaque formation and growth as one of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are fundamental issues in AD research. Especially the question how fast amyloid plaques grow to their final size after they are born remains controversial. By long-term two-photon in vivo imaging we monitored individual methoxy-X04-stained(More)
Mutations in presenilins are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), leading to impairments of memory and synaptic plasticity followed by age-dependent neurodegeneration. Presenilins are the catalytic subunits of γ-secretase, which itself is critically involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein to release neurotoxic amyloid β(More)
Previously we isolated a Rhizobium japonicum DNA fragment that was homologous to at least one of the nitrogenase structural genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Hennecke 1981). The expression of several subfragments thereof was now tested in minicells of Escherichia coli by cloning them into suitable vectors in such a way that they were transcribed from the(More)
Previous neurophysiological studies on prion protein deficient (Prnp(-/-)) mice have revealed a significant reduction of slow afterhyperpolarization currents (sI(AHP)) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Here we aim to determine whether loss of PrP(C.) directly affects the potassium channels underlying sI(AHP) or if sI(AHP) is indirectly disturbed by(More)